NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 27 Peace and Security Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Internal Threats to Peace and Security


  • Terrorism is a criminal act to inflict dramatic and deadly injury on civilians and to create an atmosphere of fear, generally for a political or ideological purpose.
  • These Terrorism acts are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, and religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them.
  • They commit these heinous acts to create an environment of terror to intimidate people and governments.


  • Insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, the government.
  • India has experienced violence related to insurgent movements, which can be divided into movements with political motives and movements for social and economic justice.
  • The most prominent militant groups are operating in Jammu and Kashmir and Assam, and different militant groups in India՚s north-eastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.

Naxalite Movement

  • The Naxalite quite often attack public property, the government officials, police and paramilitary forces and the people whom they consider their enemies.
  • They know that once the development takes place then perhaps, they may lose the support of the people.
  • So, they are misguiding the innocent people that the government wants to take away their mineral wealth and their forests.
  • The majority of youth who are engaged in violent activities of the movement belong to the sections of society, mostly the scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and Dalits that have been bearing the brunt of social discrimination and economic deprivation for ages.

The Strategy of the Government

  • The Indian government has been employing strategies and methods to deal with terrorism, insurgency and Naxalite movement.
  • It will put international pressure on Pakistan and other neighbouring countries to extend their active cooperation in ensuring that the support to such terrorist groups does not come from them.
  • India has entered into a treaty with Myanmar and very recently Bangladesh to restrain the help and support coming to insurgent movements from those countries.

Basic Objective for India and the International Peace and Security

  • Maintenance of freedom in policy formulation;
  • Promotion of international peace and security;
  • Good relationships with other nations and especially with our Neighbours;
  • Support to the United Nations;
  • Disarmament; opposition to colonialism, imperialism and racism; and
  • Cooperation among developing nations.

Policy of Non-Alignment

  • India gives birth to the concept of non-alignment during the period when the world was divided between western nations led by the United States and the communist nations led by the Soviet Union.
  • The two big countries became two opposite poles known as East and West and the world politics revolved around these two poles.
  • The Non-alignment was neither neutrality nor isolationism.
  • It won many supporters in the developing countries as it provided an opportunity to them for protecting their sovereignty
  • The Non-Aligned Movement is providing all member states, regardless of size and importance, an opportunity to participate in world politics.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement can act as a check against US dominance after the disintegration of the Soviet Union,
  • The Non-Aligned Movement can prove to be a powerful instrument for South-South cooperation.
  • The developing countries united under the banner of the Non-Aligned Movement have to fight for the reform of the United Nations and change it according to the requirements of the 21st century.

Support to United Nations

  • India has always viewed the United Nations as a vehicle for peace and security and for peaceful change in world politics.
  • India has been extending all-out support in its efforts for international peace and security and disarmament.
  • India expects that the United Nations must involve countries to moderate their differences through talks or negotiations.
  • India has advocated an active role for the United Nations in the development effort of the developing countries. It has pleaded for a common united front of these countries in the United Nations.
  • India has a strong case for becoming a permanent member of the Security Council.

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