NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 3 Modern World – I, Introduction Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Modern World – I

Introduction

  • During the modern period many profound changes of Europe can be witnessed in its cultural and intellectual life that helped usher.
  • According to social and political fields changes were Renaissance, awakening, that encouraged thinking and reasoning.
  • In the Arab world rationality and scientific enquiry had already begun during this period.
  • In this chapter we are going to learn about the changes that transformed medieval society into the modern world.

Impact of Decline of Feudalism

  • Feudalism was the most important institution during the medieval age.
  • Many centuries ago, Feudalism as an institution flourished throughout Europe.
  • It started to decline, after the rise of the middle class.
  • Rise of powerful kingdoms as well as warfare between the feudal lords were also the reasons for decline.
  • Elected representatives governed towns which were centers of production.
  • In these towns the people are free from the federal restriction, they are free to go anywhere and to take up any profession.
  • Artisans and peasants from rural areas were attracted by towns because they are provided with better prospects of living and acting as a refuge from feudal exploitation.
  • Production of Crops such as cotton and sugarcane were encouraged in towns and cities.
  • The lords needed money to buy various luxurious commodities, so they began to accept money from their vassals instead of services.
  • The birth of the new movement called Renaissance was started due to the infusion of new ideas.

Renaissance

Renaissance
  • The modern period shows;
    • The end of the Age of Faith
    • The beginning of the Age of Reason
  • It views movements like;
    • The Renaissance
    • The Reformation
  • The changes of the people՚s life from all over the world;
    • Cultural
    • Intellectual
    • Religious
    • Social
    • Political
Commercial and Financial Techniques
  • Around the 14th Century AD, it was started in Italy and at that time Italy was divided into small cities and states.
  • This new society of mercantile is less hierarchical and more concerned about secular objectives.
  • Opening a world economic system, a significant role is played by adventures and explorers.
  • After the Many discovery of trade routes new commodities were brought from;
    • America
    • Asia
    • Africa
  • These commodities enriched European՚s life and this inspired them to develop new ways of producing commodities in large numbers to make a profit.
Leonardo Da Vnicis Monalisa
  • ‘Capital’ - In the political life as well as in relations with other countries they enjoy an important position.
  • In this period new ideas were generated that brought a profound change in the thinking pattern of the people.
  • The central concern of the new scholars were human beings.
  • Respect of human beings encouraged in;
    • Art
    • History
    • Language
    • Literature
    • Ethics
  • In the field of art and literature we can find the spirit of Humanism.
  • In realistic and proportionate form, they want human beings to be painted.
Outstanding Artists

Development of modern European languages as the languages of literature;

Development of Modern European Languages
  • Artists began to make free standing statues in the field of sculpture.
  • The statue ‘David’ was made by Donatello, the first great Renaissance sculptor.
  • The poet uses some other languages instead of Latin.
  • Several works that were produced in Modern European languages were Dante՚s;
Divine Comedy
  • Two major developments took place in the history of Europe;
    • In Christianity the Protestant Reformation which resulted in the split.
    • Development concerned reforms within the Roman Catholic Church.

Developed by: