NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 4 Modern World, Industrial Revolution Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Modern World

The last lesson covered about the Renaissance.

Recap of the Last Lesson

  • Renaissance was a period in European history approximately between 1400 and 1600.
  • The Renaissance Period: Meaning rebirth or revival - historical period of approximately 300 years marked by a revival in art, literature, and learning.
  • The period served as a bridge or transition between medieval and modern Western Europe.
  • During this period the printing press evolved and had a greater impact towards the society.
  • Printing press bought political awareness about new values and ideas like liberty, equality and fraternity.
  • This transition changed the political condition in the many parts of the European countries which led the adventures for discoveries of sea routes to many territories of the world.
  • The expansion of missionaries, trade and business increased the demand of market.
  • To meet up the demand and to increase the supply new technology, new innovation, modern industries and new form of organized way of work evolved. This technological change is known as Industrial revolution.

Objective of Modern World

This lesson gives the clear picture for the following topics.

  • Describe the Industrial Revolution;
  • Discuss the innovations and technological changes brought in by the Industrial Revolution;
  • Assess the impact of the Industrial Revolution on society;
  • Identify the factors responsible for the rise of Imperialism and Colonialism;
  • Discuss the various stages of development of Imperialism in Asia and Africa;
  • Trace the events which led to the two World Wars; and
  • List the objectives of the United Nations Organisation.

Industrial Revolution

  • During 18th centuries many European countries expanded the missionaries, business and trade globally. This resulted a huge demand of market. To meet up the demand there was a need of new innovation, new technologies, and modern way of organized work. This technological change is known as Industrial revolution.
  • Thus, Industrial revolution is a stable transition from agrarian and handicraft economy to industry and machine manufacturing.
  • They helped in the growth of the country both socially and economically and also provide job opportunities, reduced poverty and also made the existing industries more productive and efficient.
  • Thus, the factory system was born.
  • The steam engine was invented by James Watt in 1769 was a key invention, as it allowed for different types of machinery like Flying Shuttle was invented by John Kay՚s in 1733, the Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves.
  • Flying Shuttle and Spinning Jenny facilitated simple way of weaving and as result cotton industry become the key industry during this period.
  • As the manufacturing activities grew, transportation, finance and communication industries expanded to support new productive capacities.
  • Initially the industrial revolution started in British during 1750 A. D to 1850 A. D and from there spread to other parts of the world.

Inventions and Reforms Played a Vital Role in the Birth of Industrial Revolution in Britain

  • Major inventions like as Jethro Tull՚s Seed Planting Drill and reforms like 1000 Enclosure Acts during 1830 gave a boost to agriculture in England.
  • But this resulted a less manpower. Now only a few people were needed to work on the farms. So, a large number of people started migrating to cities for employment. This provided cheap and abundant labour to work in the factories.
  • Acts like removal of trade barrier and Policy of Mercantilism (Mercantilism was based on the idea that a nation՚s wealth and power were best served by increasing exports and so involved increasing trade.) Helped the growth of Industrial revolution in England.

Why Was the Britain the First Country to Industrialize?

  • Britain is the birth place for the Industrial Revolution.
  • The agricultural revolution, Political reforms and Acts, Geographical location, large supplies of coal and vast colonial expansion boosted the Industrialization in the Britain.
  • In France Industrial Revolution started in 1850 A. D.
  • In Germany Industrial Revolution started after 1850 A. D.
  • In U. S. A it occurred after civil war i.e.. , during 1880s.

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