NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 4 Modern World, Industrial Revolution Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Innovations and Technological Changes During the Industrial Revolution

  • With new invention, technology and modern way of organized work made the existing industries more productive, efficient and cheaper products.
  • These inventions had maximum impact on the textile and transport industries.

Textile Industry

  • In Britain the technological advancements in the textile industry started a series of inventions in iron and steel production.
  • Due to the technological advancement in the textile industry, the manufactured products are cheaper when compared to hand made products.
  • As a result, Britain expanded the business across the globe which inspired other parts of the country.
  • Samuel Slater slipped out of England to America. He took the knowledge of British textile industry with him which initiated Industrial Revolution in America.
  • In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the ‘Spinning Mule’
  • Edmond Cartwright made the first water driven powered loom.
  • The textile industry stimulated other industries such as dying, bleaching, and printing.

Steam Engine

  • The steam engine was originally invented and perfected to be used in mines.
  • Before steam power, most factories and mills were powered by water, wind, horse, or man.
  • The engines powered by steam increased the ease of operating boats, ships, railways, factories, mills, mines and farms.
  • Steam power allowed for factories to be located anywhere.
  • Newcomen steam engine in 1712 greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted.

Coal and Iron

  • Coal and iron are the two natural resources which boosted the Industrial revolution.
  • The steam engine, coal and iron laid the foundation for modern industry.
  • Coal was a major fuel for steam engine.
  • Coal was found abundant in Britain
  • Coal was cheap and easy to reach.
  • But Coal also has negative impact. Following are the negative impact of coal.
  • Coal was necessary to fuel steam engines that powered factories, trains, and ships.
  • This increased the usage of coal in large amount as result the coal mines became deeper and deeper.
  • This resulted a dangerous working condition.
  • Coal was moved along horizontal tunnels in baskets and then hauled up a vertical shaft to the surface.
  • The movement of coal from mines was totally dependent on muscle power – animals, men, women and children.
  • Unfortunately, the children were preferred because of their small size.
  • The demand for coal went up with the increase in the use of steam power.
  • Great progress was made in coal mining such as tunnel ventilation, transportation of coal, use of gunpowder to blast away ridges and the use of safety lamps.
  • But the coal miners suffered from many hazards and health problems like lung disease.

Iron

  • In 1709, Abraham Darby produced pig iron smelted with coke.
  • Earlier pig iron was smelted with charcoal which was derived from wood which resulted in fast depletion of England՚s forests.
  • In 1784, Henry Cort, an ironmaster, developed a process for producing a less brittle iron.
  • It was called wrought iron. It proved to be a very useful metal in industrial processes.
  • In 1774, John Wilkinson invented a drilling machine that could drill holes with great accuracy.
  • Between 1788 and 1806, the production of iron increased many times and the use of iron spread to farm machinery, hardware, shipbuilding, etc.
  • Earlier pig iron was smelted with charcoal which was derived from wood which resulted in fast depletion of England՚s forests.
  • In 1784, Henry Cort, an ironmaster, developed a process for producing a less brittle iron. It was called wrought iron. It proved to be a very useful metal in industrial processes.
  • In 1774, John Wilkinson invented a drilling machine that could drill holes with great accuracy.
  • Between 1788 and 1806, the production of iron increased many times and the use of iron spread to farm machinery, hardware, shipbuilding, etc.

Means of Transportation and Communication

  • The growth of the Industrial Revolution depended on the ability to transport raw materials and finished goods over long distances.
  • There were three main types of transportation that increased during the Industrial Revolution: waterways, roads, and railroads.
  • The roads also improved immensely during this time period.
  • During the mid-19th century wooden steam powered ships took over sailing ship.
  • Soon after iron ship was used for travelling across the ocean.
  • If the first phase of Industrial Revolution depended on steam, then the second phase depended on electricity
  • Faster means of transportation and communication speeding up business transactions, contacts between army units, colonies, countries and even common people.
  • The invention of telegraph and telephone made it possible to communicate anywhere in the world instantly.
  • Michael Faraday invented the first electric motor.

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