NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 4 Modern World, Industrial Revolution Part 3 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Impact of the Industrial Revolution


  • The Industrial Revolution also encouraged the movement of the masses towards cities which gave birth to an urban society.
  • The workers now lived close to the workshops or the factories where they were provided employment opportunities.


  • Factory owners wanted to make profits rather than treat employees with respect and also made the workers to work for long shifts 12 to 16 hours
  • Low wages were paid to workers.
  • Worker works with unsafe machines
  • The factories were poorly ventilated, noisy, dirty, damp and dark.
  • There was no compensation for workers when they face accidents.
  • Children are more vulnerable and are more exploited during Industrial Revolution, and they received very low wages.
  • Woman also paid less wages.
  • As result of poor working condition, the labour movement evolved.
  • Labour movements organized alliances known as unions.
  • They focused on labour rights, social welfare, women՚s rights, and working to end slavery.


  • Imperialism: Policy of extending control over foreign entities either through direct or indirect political or economic intervention.
  • Colonialism: System in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and resources beyond its border, displacing or ruling its local population.
  • Thus, colonialism is a term where a country conquers and rule other regions and imperialism means expanding into the neighbouring region and expanding the dominance.
  • In simple words, colonialism can be thought to be a practice and imperialism as the idea driving the practice.
  • The country which conquers another land is known as the Imperial Country while the conquered land is known as a Colony.
  • By the end of the 19th century almost all countries of Asia and Africa were under the control of one or the other European nations.
  • Industrialized countries chose Asia and Africa to extend their dominance.
  • This was because these countries were rich in resources but were politically and militarily weak and industrially backward.
  • The growth of transportation and communication in the colonies which helped in the spread of Imperialism.
  • Imperialism adversely affected the colonies.

Five Motives for Imperialism


  • Western countries established the beginning of a global economy in which the transfer of goods, money, and technology needed to be regulated in an orderly way to ensure a continuous flow of natural resources and cheap labour for the industrialized world.
    • Extreme Nationalism became a major force in the extension of Imperialism. For pride, prestige and glory, some countries like Italy and Germany conquered lands belonging to others.
    • Ideological motives like civilizing the non- European also extended the imperialism. According to them, it was ‘the white man՚s burden’ to civilise the ‘backward people’ .
  • So, it was their duty to conquer these countries, spread Christianity and bring enlightenment to them.

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