NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 5 Impact of British Rule on India (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Impact of British Rule on India

Reasons for Coming to India

  • Industrial development in England led to rising in demand for cotton in factories.
  • At the same time, India can become a market for finished products.
  • Internal power struggle in India between various rulers and with the declining power of the Mughal Empire.
  • Commercialization of agriculture with the growing of various cash crops for the industries in Britain was possible in India.

Methods of Colonization in India

  • England got controlling trade rights with India and established the East India Company in 1600.
  • The first factory was established at Surat in 1613.
  • Sir Thomas Roe got permission from the Mughal emperor Jahangir to open more factories at Agra, Ahmadabad and Broach in 1615
  • The fortified factory called Fort St. George was built on the Southern coast of Madras.
  • Battles of Plassey (1757) and Buxar (1764) was decisive battles in Indian modern history.
    • Anglo-Mysore Wars held under the leadership of Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan Four wars took place between Mysore and the British. Finally, the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) ended in the heroic defeat and death of Tipu Sultan
    • Anglo-Maratha Wars held British and the Marathas. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 - 19) was the last war between them. The English defeated the Peshwa,
    • Anglo-Sikh Wars under leader Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1792 - 1839) the British finally defeated Sikhs in the battle of Gujarat, a town on river Chenab (1849) .

Economic Impact of British Rule on India

Textile Industry and Trade

  • Industrial Revolution occurred first in England during the late 18th and the early 19th century in which mass production of goods through the machine was possible.
  • British were interested in having more raw materials from India as well as sending their finished goods back to India.
  • They imposed a conservative tariff on Indian textiles.
  • This created unemployment for a large community of weavers.
  • From an exporter, India became an importer of these goods.

Land Revenue Policy and Land Settlements

  • Governor-general Lord Cornwallis introduced the Permanent Settlement in Bengal and Bihar in 1793.
  • The zamindar had to deposit a fixed amount of money in the state treasury to recognize as hereditary owners of the land.
  • They force poor peasant to get a higher income.
  • In 1822 under the Mahalwari Settlement, the proprietors of mahal were jointly responsible for payment of revenue measured by British.
  • Under the Ryotwari Settlement, the land revenue was imposed directly on the peasant and they recognized as the owner of the land as long as he was able to pay the revenue but the exploitation continued with the high revenue demands.

Commercialization of Agriculture

  • British introduced commercial crops such as tea, coffee, indigo, opium, cotton, jute, sugarcane and oilseed.
  • Indian opium was used to balance the trade of Chinese tea.
  • Indigo was grown under a different system where all farmers were forced to grow it on th part of their land (Tinkhatiya system) .

British Impact on Society and Culture

  • The education was limited to men of upper caste.
  • Practicing sati was banned by governor-general Lord Bentinck in 1829.
  • Widow Remarriage was permitted by a law passed in 1856.
  • Inter caste and inter-communal marriage were permitted by a law passed in 1872.
  • Sharda act 1929 prevent child marriage permitted legal age of marriage for girls 14 and for boys 18.
  • British created a class of Indian who were loyal to them and work at low wages and help them to expand the market base.
  • Calcutta Madarsa was founded by Warren Hastings (1781)
  • The Asiatic Society of Bengal founded by William Jones (1784)
  • The Sanskrit College at Banaras founded by Jonathan Duncan (1794) and the Fort William College founded by Wellesley (1800) .
  • The English parliament issued a charter in 1813 for the promotion of English in the subcontinent. One lakh was issued for the promotion of western science in English.
  • Woods dispatch in 1854 help in the setup of the institution in all provinces
  • Universities were opened in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay in 1857
  • The education did not reach the mass level and remained limited to the elite classes.
  • The expansion of the English language helps them to adopt modern and rational views. The thoughts of John Locke, Ruskin, Mill, Rousseau instilled the idea of equality, fraternity and human rights.

Protests Movements

  • 7 big famines were reported which cause the death of 15 lakh people
  • Peasants and tribes rebelled against exploitative rulers.
  • Poligars of Tamil Nadu, Malabar and Coastal Andhra, Mappilas of Malabar, Jats of western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, In Maharashtra and Gujarat, Kolis revolted.
  • The government wanted them to be converted to Christianity
  • English East India Company՚s rule in India witnessed a large number of uprisings and rebellions in 1857 which shook the British empire and forced them to remove the company raj
  • The revolt of 1857 also known as the first war of Indian independence.

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