NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 8 Indian National Movement Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Emergence of Gandhi

  • Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi was a lawyer, trained in Britain. He went to South Africa in 1893. There he decided to fight against the policy of racial discrimination of the South African Government by means of Satyagraha, in which in succeeded.
  • He returned to India in 1915.
  • He practiced the ideas of truth and non-violence against the British Government to provide independence to our motherland.

His Experiments

  • Satyagraha - Champaran in Bihar in 1917 - Against the oppressive plantation system.
  • Satyagraha - Kheda districts of Gujarat. - Peasants were not able to pay their revenue because of crop failure and epidemics.
  • In Ahmedabad, he organized a movement amongst cotton mill workers for a wage hike.
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920 - 22) - Against the proposed Rowlatt Act in 1919
    • The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities
    • Surrender of titles and honorary offices
    • Resignation from nominated seats in local bodies
    • Boycott of British courts by lawyers, foreign goods, schools and colleges.
    • Mob violence at Chauri Chaura village, in Gorakhpur district of UP, upset Gandhi and he suspended his non-cooperation movement on February 14,1922.
  • In 1927, the Simon Commission came to India to suggest measures for constitutional reforms. - All-White Commission - Boycotted by Indians.
  • Indian political leaders initiated drafting a Constitution
    • Known as Nehru Report which formed the outline of the present Constitution.
    • Recommendations were a declaration of rights, a parliamentary system of government, adult franchise and an independent judiciary.
  • The Congress Committee issued a call to the country to celebrate 26th January as Purna-Swaraj Day.
  • Dandi March- March-April, 1930 - Government imposed taxes on the use of salt. - Gandhi marched from his Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi on the Gujarat coast for the purpose of raiding the Government Salt. On 6th April 1930, he picked up the scattered sea salt from the coast to break the Salt Law.
  • Civil Disobedience Movement
    • Promoted unity among Indians.
    • Recruit younger people and educate them to stand for political positions.

The Revolutionaries

  • Revolutionaries chose the path of violence to gain independence for India.
  • Sardar Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru, Sukh Deo, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Khudiram Bose, V. D. Savarkar etc.
  • They attempted the killing of unpopular British officials, committed dacoities to finance their activities and looted arms.
  • The Kakori Conspiracy and bombing inside the Central Legislative Assembly were significant attempts by them.

The Development of Socialist Ideas

  • Inspired by Karl Marx and the Soviet Revolution, people inside and outside Congress, people developed Socialist ideology.
  • All India Trade Union Congress which was founded in 1920 worked towards improvement in the workers՚ working and living condition
  • Demands for land reforms, the abolition of the zamindari system and reduction in the revenue and debt relief arose.
  • Subhash Chandra Bose, Nehru, Nalini Gupta were prominent Socialists.

The Communal Divide

  • To counteract the growing Nationalism since the mutiny of 1857, the British Government tested to play out Divide and Rule to disrupt the unity of communal grounds, especially Hindus and Muslims. Few attempts of the communal divide were:
  • The Communal Award of 1932 was a continuation of this policy because it allowed separate electorates and reservation of seats to the depressed classes also.
  • Separate electorates for Muslims in Morley-Minto Reforms, 1909.
  • Montford Reforms (1919) they were extended for Sikhs, Europeans, Anglo-Indians, Indian Christians, etc.
  • Two-nation theory by demanding a separate state of Pakistan appeared in 1938 and accepted in 1947.

Achievement of Independence (1935 - 47)

  • The Government of India Act passed on August 2,1935.
    • Under the Act, the concept of an All-India Federation comprising the Provinces of British India and the Princely States came up. The members from the provinces were to be elected, while the representatives of the States were to be nominated by the rulers
    • Congress condemned the Act.
    • Through the elected provinces Congress put their objective of independence and total rejection of the new constitution, and the demand for a Constituent Assembly to frame India՚s constitution.
  • The Second World War broke out in 1939. Congress refused cooperation and demanded full independence.
    • Cripps Mission came to India and offered ‘Dominion Status’ at the end of the war.
    • Congress rejected the offer.
    • Mission failed.
  • SC Bose saw WWII as an opportunity to strike a blow for the freedom of India.
    • He went to Germany to take help from Hitler in 1942 to strike a blow for the freedom of India.
    • He formed the Indian National Army (INA) for the liberation of India.
    • With Ras Bihari Bose he gave the famous battle cry ‘Chalo Dilli’ and hoisted the national flag in Kohima in 1944.
  • The Congress Working Committee in Wardha decided to start Quit India Resolution in August 1942.
    • Before it could start all the important leaders of Congress were arrested.
    • Congress was banned and the Press was censored.
    • The anger after the arrest of leaders the movement turned violent at several places.
  • After World War II, the British government started to talk about the transfer of power to Indian Hindus and Muslims.
    • Cabinet Mission in 1946 proposed its plan of establishing a Federal Government in India. Everyone gave their consent for it.
    • The Muslim League rejected the Cabinet Mission Plan in the middle of 1946 and aggressively demanded the attainment of Pakistan.
    • The conflict resulted in widespread communal riots in different parts of India.
    • Viceroy Lord Mountbatten in June 1946 proposed a plan which included a partition of India was accepted and the Indian Independence Act, 1947 came into being.
    • It created two independent states in the Indian subcontinent, i.e.. . , Indian Union and Pakistan.

India Got Its Independence on 15th August 1947

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