NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 9 Physiography of India Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Physical Divisions of India

The Northern Mountain

  • The Himalayas
  • The Trans Himalayas
  • The Puranchal hills

The Himalayan Mountains

  • It is one of the youngest and highest mountain range in the world.
  • The act as a natural barrier and protection from the cold breeze.
  • They run from the west-east direction from Indus to the Brahmaputra along with Indian boundary.
  • It is further divided into three parallel ranges:
    • Greater Himalayas - The average height of 6000 metres and width lies between 120 to 190 Kms. It has high peaks like Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Nanga Parbat etc. having a height of more than 8000 metres. It has the origin of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.
    • Lesser Himalayas- average altitude lies between 1000 and 4500 metres and the average width is 50 KM. It consists of many famous hill stations like Shimla, Dalhousie Darjeeling, Chakrata, Mussoorie, Nanital etc.
    • Outer Himalayas- average altitude varies between 900 - 1100 meters and the width lies between 10 - 50 KM. They have low hills like Jammu Hills.
  • The Trans-Himalayan -It extends north of greater Himalaya. The major river is the Indus river which flows between Zaskar and Ladakh range. The Karakoram range lies extreme north of the country.
  • The Purvanchal hills It comprises various small hills like Mishami, Patkoi, Naga, Mizo hills which are located on the eastern side. The Meghalaya plateau includes the hills of Garo, Khasi and Jaintia.
  • The Northern Plains is the largest and most fertile plains of the world. They are located between south of the Himalayas and north of the Peninsular plateau.
    • It is formed by the deposition of the sediments brought by the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
    • The average length is 2400 km from Punjab in the west to Assam in the east. And width varies from about 300 km in the west to about 150 km in the east.

The Peninsular Plateau

  • It from the Aravali range till the southern tip of India, covers an area of nearly 5 lakh sq. km
  • It is made of old and metamorphosed rocks.
  • It spread over the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The central Highlands extends from Narmada River and the northern plains. The Malwa Plateau and Chhota Nagpur plateau are its parts.
    • River Betwa, Chambal and Ken are the important rivers of Malwa plateau
    • Mahadeo, Kaimur and Maikal are the important hills of chhota Nagpur plateau.
  • The Deccan Plateau mainly consist the black soil.
    • It is formed due to volcanic eruptions. And separated by the fault line
  • The Western Ghats lie on the Western edge of the Deccan plateau. It is parallel to the western coast for about 1600 km.
    • The famous peaks are Doda Betta, Anaimudi and Makurti.
    • The famous waterfalls are Jog falls on Sharavati, Shiva Samudram falls on Kaveri etc.
    • The rivers like the Godavari, Bhima and Krishna flows here
  • The Eastern Ghats runs parallel to the east coast from south of Mahanadi valley to the Nilgiri
    • The famous hills are Mahendragiri hills, Nimaigiri hills in Orissa, Nallamallai

The Indian Desert

  • Also known as the Thar Desert. It is the ninth-largest desert in the world. It spreads over the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
  • It receives less than 150 mm of rainfall per year.
  • Luni River is the lifeline here which further disappear into the sand.
  • The vegetation cover is low with thorny bushes are common.

The Coastal Plains

  • The coastal plains are parallel to Arabian Sea & Bay of Bengal along the Peninsular Plateau.
  • The western coastal plain is a narrow belt along the Arabian sea of about 10 - 20 km wide.
    • It stretches from Rann of Kachchh to Kanyakumari.
  • The eastern coast runs along the Bay of Bengal.
    • It is wider than the western coastal plain having average width is about 120 Kms
    • Eastern coastal plain is having the delta of rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
    • The Chilka largest saltwater lake found here

The Islands

  • There are a total of 204 islands in Bay of Bengal and 43 islands in the Arabian Sea
  • The Andaman & Nicobar Islands extend from north to south in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Barren Island is the only active volcano found here.
  • Lakshadweep islands are located in the Arabian sea. Having Kavaratti as its capital.
  • These islands are formed by corals and have a variety of flora and fauna.
  • These islands are an important tourist destination for underwater activities.

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