Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia: Types of Phylum: Chordata (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Phylum: Chordata

The subphylum vertebrata have 2 super classes Agnatha and Gnathostomata.

  • Agnatha: Jawless vertebrates, mouth does not possess jaws hence named Agnatha. They are cold blooded and further divided into following classes.
  • Class: Ostracodermi: primitive, extinct group of Agnatha, Paleozoic and world՚s first vertebrates called Ostracoderms.
  • Class: Cyclostomata: Body cell shaped, without scales, jaws and lateral fins. Mouth rounded, gills 5 - 16 pairs and are parasites and scavengers. Example: Lampreys (Petromyzon) and Hagfishes (Myxine) .
  • Gnathostomata: Jawed vertebrates having true jaws and paired limbs. Paired nostrils are present and divided into two super classes: Pisces and Tetrapoda.
  • Superclass: Pisces: True fishes (aquatic) , body bears paired, respired by gills and cold blooded. They possess scaly skin. Pisces divided into three classes.
  • Class: Placodermi includes the earliest fossil fishes which lived in fresh water. Primitive jaws with teeth present. Skeleton was bony. Example: Climatius, Dinichthys.
Image Showing Class Placodermis Example
  • Class: Chondrichthyes: marine fishes having cartilaginous endoskeleton. Five to seven pairs of gills. Gill-slits not covered by operculum. Male fishes have pelvic claspers. Example: Scoliodon, Chimera.
Image Showing Class Chondrichthyes Example
  • Class: Osteichthyes: Endoskeleton bony, skin having various types scales. Gill slits covered by operculum. Male fishes without claspers, Example: Labeo (Rohu) , Protopterus (Lung fish) , Hippocampus (Sea horse) .
Image Showing Class Osteichthyes Example
  • Superclass: Tetrapoda: Land vertebrates with two pairs of pentadactyl limbs; have cornified skin and lungs. Tetrapoda is divided into four classes.
  • Class: Amphibia: Adults are amphibious and respire by lungs. Breathe by gills, skin moist, glandular and with no external scales. Heart 3-chambered and cold blooded. Example: Rana (Frog) , Bufo (Toad) .
Image Showing Class Amphibia Example
  • Class: Reptilia: terrestrial, dry skin and covered by ectodermal horny scales or bony plates. Heart incompletely 4-chambered and cold blooded. Example: Hemidactylus (lizard) , snakes, turtles, Crocodiles.
Image Showing Class Reptilia Example
  • Class: Aves: Body covered with feathers. Forelimbs modified into wings. No teeth in beak. Heart 4 chambered. Warm blooded. Example: Ostrich, Columba (Pigeon) , crow, male tufted duck, white stork.
Image Showing Class Aves Example
  • Class: Mammalia: body covered by hair. Skin glandular, Mammary glands present and in females, mammary glands secrete milk for suckling the young. Heart 4 chambered warm blooded. Example: Echidna (Spiny anteater) , Macropus (Kangaroo) , Humans, Whale, Elephant, tiger, cat, bat, etc.
Image Showing Class Mammalia Example

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