Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia: Some Families of Angiosperms and Malvaceae (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Some Families of Angiosperms

Angiosperm is the largest and most diverse group within the kingdom Plantae. Within each family are included plants which show similarities in organization of various parts of the flower. Examples of families:

Fabaceae Family (Papilionaceous) : A Dicotyledonous Family

The plants are annual or perennial and herb, shrubs or tree. Tap roots present, stem herbaceous and leaves are petiolate. Flowers are actinomorphic or zygomorphic, complete. Calyx contain 5 sepals and corolla contain 5 petals, there is a large petal called standard, two smaller ones are wings and two interior small ones are keel. Androecium contain 10 stamens: free, Monadelphous, or Diadelphous (9 + 1) . Gynoecium is superior, monocarpellary with marginal placentation and fruit is legume type and non-endospermic seed. Example: Pea (Pisum sativum) , Chickpea or Chana (Cicer arietinum) .

Image Showing Floral Structure and Floral Diagram of Fabacea …


The plant may be herbs, shrubs or trees. Flowers are complete, actinomorphic, pentamerous and hypogynous. Epicalyx is present. Calyx has 5 sepals which connect at the base, corolla has 5 petals. Androecium has indefinite Monadelphous stamens and gynoecium has five carpels, syncarpous, ovary superior with axile placentation. Fruit is capsule type and non-endospermic seed. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China rose) is one of the best examples of this family. Example: Bhindi, hollyhocks.

Image Showing China Rose Flower with Flower Twig, T. S of Ova …

Liliaceae- A Monocot Family (Lily Family)

The plants are mostly herbs, herbaceous stem with alternate leaves. Flowers are actinomorphic, pedicellate, hypogynous and trimerous. Perianth is 6 in two words of three each, polyphyllous or gamophyllous and free or united. Androecium has six stamens, polyandrous and Gynoecium has tricarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior or half inferior. Fruit is berry or capsule with endospermic seed. Examples: Ghrit kumari (Aloe vera) , Tulip (Tulipa tulip) , Lily (Lilium candidum) , Onion (Allium cepa) .

Image Showing Characters of Liliaceae by Onion Plant

Family Poaceae – a Monocotyledonous Family

The plants are annual or perennial herbs and rarely tree (bamboo) . Stem is herbaceous and leaves are sessile with long sheathing base, simple and parallel venation. Each spikelet is composed of 2 - 5 flowers. It is enclosed by a pair of bracts called glumes. Flower is small, bracteates and unisexual, perianth (2 or 3 sale like lodicules) and androecium has 3 stamens while gynoecium has monocarpellary, unilocular superior ovary. Fruit is caryopsis and endospermic seed. Examples: Rice (Oryza sativa) , Wheat (Triticum aestivum) , Maize (Zea mays) , Barley (Hordeum vulgare) .

Image Showing Poaceae Family (Oat Plant)

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