Cell Structure and Function: Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis

Image Showing Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
MitosisMeiosis
Cell divides only onceTwo cell divisions; first and second meiotic division
Takes place in somatic cellsTakes place in germ cells
Occurs in both sexually as well as asexually reproducing organismsOccurs only in sexually reproducing organisms
Interphase occurs prior to each divisionInterphase proceeds only in meiosis-I. it does not occur prior to meiosis-II
DNA replication takes place during interphase IDNA replication takes place during interphase – I but not interphase – II
Duration of prophase is short (few hours)Prophase comparatively longer (takes many days)
Prophase simpleProphase having five sub-stages; leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis
The cell divides only once, and the chromosomes also divide only onceThere are two cell divisions, but the chromosomes divide only once
Synapsis does not occurSynapsis of homologous chromosomes takes place during prophase
No exchange of segments during prophase between two chromatids of chromosomesExchange of segments during crossing over between non-sister chromatids of two homologous chromosomes
Each chromosome consists of two chromatids united by a centromereEach bivalent has four chromatids and two centromeres
The arms of the prophase chromatids are close to one anotherThe arms of the chromatids are separated widely in prophase – II
Chromosomes are duplicated at the beginning of prophaseIn prophase-I, chromosomes appear single although DNA, replication has taken place in interphase-I
No bouquet stage is recordedChromosomes of animals and some plants show convergence towards one side during early prophase – I. it is known as bouquet stage
Pairing of chromosomes does not occur in mitosisPairing or synapsis of chromosomes takes place during zygotene of prophase-I and continues up to metaphase-I
A synaptonemal complex is absentSynapsed homologous chromosome develop a synaptonemal complex
Chiasmata are absentChiasmata or visible connections between homologous chromosomes are observed during diplotene, diakinesis (prophase-I) and metaphase-I
In metaphase all the centromeres line up in the same planeIn metaphase I, the centromeres are lined up in two planes which are parallel to one another
The metaphase plate is made up of duplicated chromosomeThe metaphase plate is made up of paired chromosome
The genetic constitution of the daughter cells is identical to that of the parent cellsThe genetic constitution of the daughter cells differs from that of the parent cell. The chromosome of daughter cells usually contains a mixture of maternal and paternal genes
Centromere division takes place during anaphaseNo centromere divisions during Anaphase-I, centromeres divide only during Anaphase-II
Anaphase chromosomes are single strandedChromosomes are double stranded in anaphase-I, but single stranded in anaphase-II
Spindle fibers disappear completely in telophaseSpindle fibers do not disappear completely during telophase I
Reappearance of nucleoli at telophaseNucleoli do not appear in telophase I
The chromosome number does not change at the end of mitosisThere is reduction in the chromosome number from diploid to haploid
Cytokinesis follows every mitosis. It produces two new cellsCytokinesis often does not occur after the first or reduction division. It is often simultaneous after second division to result in four new cells
Mitosis is of shorter durationMeiosis is of longer duration
It is the basis of growth and repairIt is basis of maintaining chromosome number in sexual reproduction, as well as for providing variation in the progeny
The chromosome number remains constant at the end of mitosisThe chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid
Take part in healing and repairTake part in the formation of mesopores or gametes and maintenance of chromosome number of the race
Image Showing Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

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