Root System: Modifications of Roots, Tap Root Modifications and Modifications of Adventitious Roots (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Roots are modified into different forms to perform specific functions rather than their normal functions. Modifications in roots are found in both tap root system and adventitious root system.

Image Showing Modification of Roots

Tap Root Modifications

The primary or tap root becomes swollen with food materials, while the secondary roots remain thin and help in absorption. They are the following types;

Table Showing Tap Root Modifications
TypeCharactersExample
Conical rootSwollen root is broad at the base and gradually tapers towards the apex/tip giving the appearance of a coneCarrot
Fusiform rootSwollen root is spindle-shaped with a swollen central/middle region and narrow towards both the endsRadish
Napiform rootStorage root is swollen and globular at the base and tapers abruptly at the apex, giving a top-like appearanceBeetroot
Tuberous rootStorage root does not have any specific shape, thick, fleshy and is irregularMirabilis jalapa, Helianthus
Image Showing Modifications of Tap Root (A) Conical (Carrot) …

Modifications of Adventitious Roots

Adventitious roots are not developed from radicle, but these types of roots are developed from other parts of the plants. Adventitious roots are modified for storage and many other functions like additional support, nutrition and respiration.

Image Showing Modification of Adventitious Roots

Other Special Functions

  • Assimilatory roots for the photosynthesis
  • Epiphytic roots for the absorbing atmospheric moisture
  • Sucking roots or haustoria for the sucking nutrition from hos
  • Pneumatophores for the better gaseous exchange
  • Floating roots for the buoyancy and respiration

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