Shoot System: Fruits and Their Kinds, Types of Kinds of Fruits and Common Fruits and Their Edible Parts (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Fruits and Their Kinds

After fertilization, the ovary of flower begins to grow and develops into the fruit. Hence a fruit may be regarded as a mature or ripened ovary. A fruit consists of two parts; the pericarp developed from the ovary wall and the seeds developed from the ovules. The wall of the ovary from the pericarp then differentiates into 3 parts.

  • Epicarp forms the outer skin,
  • Mesocarp forms the edible fleshy region and
  • Endocarp forms the innermost hard region that encloses the seed. In dry fruits pericarp is thin, papery or thick and woody but not divided into three regions.
  • True fruit: a true fruit develops from a ripened ovary, e. g. mango
  • False fruit: it is fruit in which the edible portion is not the wall of ovary but a floral part like thalamus. The thalamus becomes fleshy and succulent. The actual fruit lies within the pericarp and is thin and discarded, e. g. apple
  • Parthenocarpic fruit: a fruit that develops without fertilization from ovary is called parthenocarpic fruit. Fruit is generally seedless or has non-viable seeds, e. g. banana, grapes.

Kinds of Fruits - There Are Three Basic Types

  • Simple fruits: they develop from syncarpous gynoecium of a single flower, e. g. pea, tomato
  • Aggregate fruits: they develop from Apocarpous gynoecium of a single flower, e. g. Calotropis
  • Composite or multiple fruits: they develop from an inflorescence, e. g. mulberry, pineapple

Simple Fruits

Two types; dry fruits (dry membranous/leathery pericarp) , fleshy/succulent fruits (fleshy pericarp)

Table Showing Types of Simple Dry and Simle Fleshy Fruits
Simple dry fruitsIndehiscent fruit (single seeded)-Nut: hard and woody pericarp, e. g. Cashew nut, Litchi

-Cypsela: develops from inferior ovary (pericarp free) , e. g. sunflower

-Caryopsis: develops from superior ovary (pericarp fused) , e. g. wheat

-Samara: pericarp is winged, e. g. Hiptage, Holeoptela

Schizocarpic fruits (dehisce into one sided compartments)-Cremocarp: dehisces into two mericarps, e. g. Coriandrum

-Regma: dehisces into three mericarps, e. g. Ricinus

-Carcerules: dehisces into four or more mericarps, e. g. Labiatae

-Lomentum: dehisces into 1 seeded segment, e. g. Acacia

Dehiscent fruits (many seeded)-Follicle: develops from monocarpellary ovary and dehisces by single suture, e. g. Delphinium

-Legume: develops from monocarpellary ovary and dehisces by both the sutures from apex downward, e. g. pea, groundnut

-Siliqua: develops from bicarpellary, bilocular ovary, e. g. mustard

-Capsule: develops from bi to multicarpellary superior ovary e. g. bhindi

Simple fleshy fruits-Berry: develops from a superior ovary, e. g. tomato, banana

-Pepo: develops from an inferior ovary, e. g. cucumber, watermelon

-Drupe: single seeded, stony endocarp, e. g. mango, coconut

-Hesperidium: epicarp and mesocarp fused to form the rind, e. g. Orange, lemon

-Pome: syncarpous and inferior ovary, e. g. apple, pear

-Balausta: carpels arranged in two rings, ovary inferior, hard pericarp, e. g. Pomegranate

Aggregate and Composite or Multiple Fruits

Table Showing Types of Aggregate and Multiple Fruits
Aggregate fruits (develop from an Apocarpous ovary, each carpel develops into a simple fruit)-Etaerio of achenes, e. g. Naravelia, Clematis, Ranunculus

-Etaerio of nuts, e. g. Nelumbo

-Etaerio of samaras, e. g. Liriodendron

-Etaerio of follicles, e. g. Cabomba, Magnolia, Michelia

-Etaerio of berries, e. g. Annona, Artabotrys

-Etaerio of drupes, e. g. Rubus

Composite or multiple fruits-Sorosis: develops from spadix or catkin inflorescence, e. g. jack fruit, pineapple

-Syconus: develops from Hypanthium inflorescence, e. g. Ficus

Common Fruits and Their Edible Parts

Table Showing Common Fruits and Their Edible Parts
NameTypeEdible Part
BananaBerryMesocarp and Endocarp
Date palmBerryPericarp
TomatoBerryPericarp, seed and Placentae
ApplePomeFleshy thalamus
PearPomeFleshy thalamus
CoconutDrupeEndosperm
MangoDrupeMesocarp
Custard AppleEtaerio of BerriesPericarp
LotusEtaerio of nutsCotyledons and thalamus
StrawberryEtaerio of achenesSucculent thalamus
Cashew NutNutPeduncle and Cotyledons
LitchiNutJuicy aril
OrangeHesperidiumEndocarpic hairs
LemonHesperidiumEndocarpic hairs
Jack fruitSorosisOuter axis, bract, perianth, seed
PineappleSorosisOuter axis, bract, perianth, pericarp
FicusSyconusFleshy receptacle
Monkey fruitSyconusFleshy receptacle
WheatCaryopsisEndosperm and embryo
MaizeCaryopsisEndosperm and embryo
CorianderCremocarpEntire fruit
TamarindLomentumMesocarp
GramLegumeSeed
Green gramLegumeSeed
Lady fingerCapsuleEntire fruit
CucumberPepoMesocarp, endocarp, placenta, seed
PumpkinPepoPericarp, cotyledons
WatermelonPepoMesocarp, endocarp, cotyledons
PomegranateBalaustaTesta

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