# Hydrogen and S-Block Element: Electronic Configuration of Alkaline Earth Metals (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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## Sodium Carbonate

The manufacture of sodium carbonate – the Solvay process:

• Theoretically, the process involves the reaction between sodium chloride and calcium carbonate to produce but practically other chemical are needed.
• The raw materials are sodium chloride. calcium carbonate, a fuel and ammonia.
• The calcium carbonate is strongly heated to give quicklime and carbon dioxide.

The carbon dioxide is now passed up a large tower, fitted with perforated plates, down which a concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride saturated with ammonia trickles.

Sodium hydrogen carbonate, which is not very soluble in sodium chloride solution, due to the common ion effect is filtered and heated to produce sodium carbonate:

• The sodium carbonate at this stage is contaminated with ammonium salts. For pure form, it is dissolved in water and carbon dioxide is blown through the solution.
• The precipitate of sodium hydrogen carbonate is filtered and heated to produce pure sodium carbonate.

The Solvay process is a very economical process because:

• sodium chloride and calcium carbonate are cheap.
• Quicklime and ammonium chloride formed in reactions are reacted together to produce ammonia so that, apart from making up small losses, no additional ammonia is required.
• Carbon dioxide formed in reactions is reintroduced into the Solvay tower.

## Electronic Configuration of Alkaline Earth Metals

The electronic configurations of the alkaline earth metals are listed in Table:

## Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals

Some physical properties and their trends is given in table:

Trends in Physical properties:

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