P-Block Element and Their Compound – I: Uses of Oxides of Carbon (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Uses of Oxides of Carbon

Carbon Monoxide

  • It is used as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes to reduce the metal oxides.
  • In the presence of a catalyst, it can combine with hydrogen to give methanol.

Carbon Dioxide

  • Solid carbon dioxide also called dry ice is used as a refrigerant
  • It is used in the production of carbonated drinks.

Halides of Carbon and Silicon

Carbon tetrachloride is prepared by the action of chlorine on carbon di Sulphide in the presence of a catalyst.

Silicon tetrachloride, , is formed by heating amorphous silicon in a current of dry silicon.

Silicon Carbide,

  • Silicon carbide is commonly known as carborundum.
  • It is very hard and chemically a very stable material.
  • It is prepared by heating silica with excess of carbon in an electric furnace.

Silicon

  • These are polymeric Compounds. The polymer chain contains alternately linked silicon and oxygen atoms.
  • Alkyl or aryl groups, e. g. or , are attached to the polymer backbone by means of covalent bonds to the silicon atoms.

A silicone has the formula:

Silicon Carbide
  • is an alkyl or aryl group.
  • Silicones are obtained by reacting a chloroalkane or a chlorobenzene with silicon in the presence of a copper catalyst and at a temperature of about 300°C.

  • After fractional distillation, the silane derivatives are hydrolyzed and the ‘hydroxides’ immediately condense by intermolecular elimination of water.
  • Final product depends upon the number of hydroxyl groups originally bonded to the Silicon atom:

Zeolites

  • Zeolites are open structure compounds in which the anion skeleton is penetrated by channels, giving a honeycomb-like structures.
  • These channels are large enough to allow them to exchange certain ions.
  • Thus, Zeolites are often used as ion-exchange materials and as molecular sieves.
  • Natrolite is a natural ion exchanger and used in Permutit water softeners.
  • Zeolites takes ion from the hard water and replace them by , thereby softening the water.

Group 15 Elements

  • Group consists of .
  • Group 15 elements can complete the octet in chemical combination by gaining three electrons to form the 3-valent anion, by forming three covalent bonds.
  • They cannot losing five electrons because of energetic grounds.

Physical Properties of Group 15 Element

Physical Properties of Group 15 Element

Occurrence

  • Nitrogen occurs as an inert diatomic gas, 78 percent by volume in the atmosphere.
  • Phosphorus is present as calcium phosphate in bones and teeth.
  • Nitrogen and Phosphorus are essential constituents of all plant and animal tissue.

Dinitrogen

Preparation of Dinitrogen

  • From air by the removal of oxygen etc. by physical or chemical means.
  • Air is passed through two wash bottles one containing a solution of sodium hydroxide and the other sulphuric acid which remove carbon dioxide and moisture.
  • The dry air is now passed over heated iron or copper to remove oxygen.

Nitrogen collected in gas jars or holders contains about l per cent of noble gases.

  • By the decomposition of nitrogen compounds.
  • When a solution of ammonium nitrite is heated in a flask, nitrogen is obtained.

By the oxidation of ammonia:

Chlorine is passed into an excess of concentrated ammonia solution; nitrogen is evolved which is bubbled through water to remove ammonia and ammonium chloride.

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