P-Block Elements and Their Compounds-II: Uses of Hydrogen Halides (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Uses of Hydrogen Halides

  • Hydrogen fluoride is used to prepare certain fluorides mainly fluorocarbons or freons.
  • Hydrochloric acid are used in the manufacture of aniline dyes and for cleaning iron before galvanization.
  • Hydrogen bromide and hydrogen iodide are used to prepared bromide and iodide salt.

Oxides of Chlorine

Chlorine Monoxides

Chlorine monoxide, , is prepared by passing chlorine over freshly prepared mercury (II) oxide.

It is a pale-yellow gas which decomposes violently on heating and dissolves in water forming hypochlorous acid.

It is a powerful oxidizing agent.

Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide, , is prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on potassium chlorate.

It is an orange gas and explosive in nature.

Chlorine Hexoxide

  • Chlorine hexoxide, , is prepared by the action of ozone on chlorine at low temperature.
  • It is a red liquid and dissolves in alkalis producing chlorate and perchlorate.

Chlorine Heptoxide

Chlorine heptoxide, , is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentoxide on anhydrous perchloric acid at .

It is a colourless oil which explodes on heating or striking.

The structures of Chlorine oxides are as follows:

Chlorine Heptoxide

Oxoacid of Chlorine

Hypochlorous Acid

  • Hypochlorous acid is known only in solution.
  • It is prepared by shaking chlorine water.

Chlorous Acid

  • Chlorous acid, is Known only in solution.
  • The acid is prepared by the action of barium chlorite with sulphuric acid.

Chloric Acid

Chloric acid, is prepared by the action of barium chlorate with sulphuric acid.

Perchloric Acid

Perchloric acid, , is prepared by distilling potassium perchlorate with concentrated sulphuric acid under reduced pressure.

  • It is a colourless oily liquid and combines vigorously with water forming hydronium perchlorate .
  • It is one of the strong acids
  • It is a oxidizing agent.
Perchloric Acid

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)

  • Chlorofluorocarbons are the compounds of carbon where chlorine and fluorine are substituted for hydrogen in saturated hydrocarbons e. g. , etc.
  • These compounds have very high capacity to retain heat.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are also termed as freons.
  • Chlorofluorocarbon are used in aerosols, solvents, foam blowing agents and refrigerants.
  • They are hazardous to environment.
  • react with protective ozone layer in the stratosphere , which protect us from radiations from outer sphere enter into our atmosphere and damage our life system.

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