Nomenclature and General Principles: IUPAC Nomenclature of Aliphatic Organic Compounds Containing Functional Groups (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for competitive exams : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

IUPAC Nomenclature of Aliphatic Organic Compounds Containing Functional Groups

A functional group is an atom or group of atoms which is responsible for characteristics properties of the compounds.

For example,

, , , , , etc.

Compound with One Functional Group (Monofunctional Derivatives)

  • The derivatives of hydrocarbons containing only one functional group are called monofunctional derivatives.
  • Most of the IUPAC names of functional derivatives of hydrocarbons are derived by replacing the suffix ane of the parent alkane by specific suffix for the functional groups.
  • There are some derivatives in which a particular prefix is added to the parent alkane name. e. g. in nitroalkanes, haloalkanes, and haloarenes etc.
  • Given below are some rules for the IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds containing functional groups.
  • All the general rules for the naming of hydrocarbons are also applicable.

Rule 1:

  • First of all, the longest chain of carbon atoms containing the functional group is identified.
  • In carbon containing functional group, the main chain must include the carbon atom of the group.

For example:

Compound with One Functional Group

or are correct selections of chain of carbon atoms whereas is wrong selection.

Rule 2:

The longest continuous carbon atom chain is numbered from that end which will give the lowest number to the carbon atom bearing the functional group.

Rule 3:

There is a specific suffix for each functional group that replaces the ending in the name of the corresponding parent alkane.

Rule 4:

If the carbon chain is branched, then the attached alkyl groups are named and numbered in Structure I (rule 1) main chain contain a branch of two carbon atoms i.e.. ethyl group at position 2.

Compound with One Functional Group

Rule 5:

While writing the name of the compound, place the substituents in the alphabetical order.

Some Common Functional Groups and Their Aliphatic Derivatives

Some Common Functional Groups

Certain derivatives have some specific general names e. g. monohydroxy benzene are called phenol and monoamine benzene as aniline.

Some Common Functional Groups

Naming of Organic Compounds with more than one functional group

The priority order of the various functional groups is as follows:

, , , , , , , , , , , , (halogen) , , , and .

Developed by: