Chemistry: Chemical Bonding: Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry and Bonding of Ethene (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry of PCl5 Molecule and Octahedral Geometry of SF6

Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry

Hybridization and Multiple Bonds

  • The hybridization helps in understanding the bonding between pairs of such atoms.
  • In the case of bonding in ethane (C2H6) , two carbon atoms are bonded to each other and each carbon atom is bonded to three hydrogen atoms.
  • In ethane each carbon atom undergoes sp3 hybridization to give four sp3 hybridized orbitals.
  • The two carbon atoms form a carbon – carbon bond by sp3 - sp3 overlapping.
  • The C-C bond is formed along the internuclear axis. Such a bond is called as ó bond.
  • The remaining six sp3 hybridized orbitals overlap with 1s orbitals of hydrogen atoms to give a molecule of ethane, C2H6 as shown below:
Hybridization and Multiple Bonds

Bonding of Ethene

  • In ethene, the orbitals of the carbon atoms undergo sp2 hybridization.
  • Here, only two p orbitals of the carbon atoms hybridize with the 2s orbital to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals.
  • The remaining p-orbitals (one on each carbon atom) do not take part in hybridization.
  • A carbon – carbon bond is formed by overlapping of sp2 orbital on the two carbon atoms
  • The remaining four sp2 hybridized orbitals overlap with the 1s orbitals of hydrogen atoms to give the basic skeleton of the molecule.
  • They are perpendicular to the molecular plane and undergo sideways overlap to give an electron cloud in the plane above and below the molecule.
  • This is called as Π bond.
  • In ethene there are two bonds between the carbon atoms one sigma and one pi bond.
Bonding of Ethene

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