Chemistry: Chemical Bonding: Bonding in Methane and Phosphorus Pentachloride (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Glide to success with Doorsteptutor material for competitive exams : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Bonding in Methane

  • In case of methane the central atom, carbon, has an electronic configuration of 1 s2, 2 s2 , 2 p2.
  • In order to form bonds with four hydrogen atoms one of the electrons from the 2-s orbital of carbon atom is excited to the 2-p orbital.
  • One 2-s orbital and three 2-p orbitals of the carbon atom then hybridize to give four sp3 hybridized orbitals. This is called sp3 hybridization.
  • These four sp3 hybrid orbitals are directed towards the corners of a regular tetrahedron.
  • These hybrid orbitals then form bonds with the 1-s orbitals of hydrogen atoms to give a methane molecule as shown below:
Carbon Atom Ground State
Carbon Atom
Bonding in Methane

Phosphorus Pentachloride (Sp3D Hybridization)

Phosphorus Pentachloride
  • These orbitals overlap with singly filled p-orbitals of five chlorine atoms and form five σ bonds.
  • PCl5 molecule has a trigonal bipyramidal geometry.
  • Three P – Cl bonds (equatorial) make an angle of with each other and lie in one plane.
  • The other two P – Cl bonds (axial) are at to the equatorial plane, one lying above and the other lying below the plane.


  • Six sp3d2 hybrid orbitals are formed which are directed towards the corners of a regular octahedron.
  • These orbitals overlap with singly filled orbitals of six F atoms and form bonds giving a regular octahedral geometry.
Six Hybrid Orbitals

Developed by: