Chemistry: Solid State: Classification of Crystalline Solids: Different Types of Attractive Forces (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2023)

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Classification of Crystalline Solids

  • In crystalline solids the constituent particles are arranged in an order and are held together by different types of attractive forces.
  • These forces could be coulombic or electrostatic, covalent, metallic bonding or weak intermolecular in nature.
  • The differences in the observed properties of the solids are due to the differences in the type of forces between the constituting particles.
  • The types of forces binding the constituent particles can be used as a basis for classification of crystalline solids.
  • On this basis, the crystalline solids can be classified into four different types- ionic, molecular, covalent and metallic solids.
  • The sodium chloride is an example of an ionic solid because; the sodium and chloride ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic interactions.
  • Iodine is an example of a molecular solid because in this the molecules are held together by weak van der Waals forces.
  • Diamond, with strong covalent bonds between the constituent carbon atoms is an example of covalent solids.
  • Metals are a large number of positive cores of the atoms which are held together by electrons.
  • The characteristics and the properties of different types of solids are given in the following table:
Classification of Crystalline Solids