Fundamentals of Management: General Principles of Management (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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General Principles of Management

General Principles of Management in Image

Division of Work

  • Work should be assigned to a person for which he is best suited.
  • Work should be divided into compact jobs to be assigned to individuals.

Authority and Responsibility

  • Responsibility: Work assigned to any person
  • Authority: Rights that are given to him to manage people and things to ensure performance
  • Authority should go hand in hand with the responsibility for effective results.


  • Emphasizes that subordinates should respect their superiors and obey their orders.
  • Superiors՚ behavior should be such that they make subordinates deferential.
  • There will be no problem of industrial disputes.

Unity of Command

  • Subordinate should work under the supervision of one superior only.
  • In this he gets instructions and to whom he is accountable.
  • Avoids confusion in authority and instructions.

Unity of Direction

  • Each group of activities having the same purpose.
  • One head and one plan of action.
  • There may be wastage, over expenditure and useless competition among the managers.

Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest

  • Collective good and interest of the organisation as a whole.
  • It should be preferred to individual interests.
  • This ensures welfare of the organisation as well as its individual members.


  • Management should try to give fair wages to the employees.
  • So, as to ensure satisfaction of workers and productivity for the organisation.


  • Single manager can supervise the work of the subordinates easily.
  • Big organisation, control is divided among number of persons to facilitate operational decision making at different levels.

Scalar Chain

  • Chain of authority relationship from the highest to the lowest ranks.
  • Order of this chain should be maintained when some instructions are to be passed on or study is to be made.


  • Placement of men and materials should be properly made.
  • Each man should be provided the best suited work.


  • Requires the managers to be kind and just to workers.
  • Promotes a friendly atmosphere between superiors and subordinates.
  • Motivates them to perform their duties efficiently.

Stability of Tenure

  • Employees should be provided stability and continuity of their ownership of employment.
  • There should not be frequent termination of employees.
  • Achieved through good remuneration and honorable treatment of personnel.


  • Implies encouraging initiative among its personnel.
  • To chalking out and execution of a plan to achieve the desired results.

Esprit De Corps

  • It means team spirit.
  • Managers should introduce the spirit of teamwork and cooperation among the employees.
  • Helps in developing an atmosphere of mutual trust and a sense of unity.

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