Process of Staffing: Manpower Planning, Job Analysis and Recruitment (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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The process of staffing starts with ascertaining the required number of various categories of employees for the organisation. This is known as manpower planning. It decides the kinds of staff and the number of staffs required for the organisation. This is done through several methods like job analysis, workload analysis, etc. The next thing to be done in the staffing process is the recruitment exercise, i.e.. , finding out the available manpower from internal and external sources. The next step is to select the right person from the available manpower through tests and interviews and make appointments. This is followed by their placement on the jobs and necessary introduction of the work environment and the rules of compensation, promotion, transfer etc. Thus, the various steps involved in the process of staffing are as follows.

Process of Staffing

Let us now discuss these aspects briefly to gain more clarity.

Manpower Planning

Manpower planning refers to the process of estimating the manpower requirement of an organisation. While estimating the manpower requirement, the management generally keeps in mind the available infrastructure including the technology, production schedule, market fluctuation, demand forecasts, government՚s policies and so on. It tentatively decides the kinds of staff as well as the number of staffs needed for the organisation. The focus of the manpower planning is to get right number of qualified people at the right time.

Job Analysis

In the context of recruitment, one must be conversant with another important aspect of manpower planning viz, job analysis, which is a pre-requisite for any recruitment exercise. The job analysis helps in determining the qualifications, skills and experience required for various categories of employees. It involves:

  • identification of each job in terms of duties and responsibilities, (called job description) and
  • determining the abilities and skills that are required for performing the job (called job specification) .

These two aspects of job analysis (job description and job specification) are useful in recruitment and selection of employees so as to find the right person for the job.


  • Suppose you want to open a restaurant. After planning and organising you are aware of the various job positions that are required to be filled up. Let us say, you have assessed your requirement for a general manager, a chef, an accountant, and many other staff for home delivery of foods. Possibly, you have a list of persons interested to join your restaurant. For example, your uncle has promised you to provide an experienced general manager. The manager of the bank from where you have taken loan has referred an accountant to you. One of the chief cooks of a reputed hotel has already approached/talked to you to join your restaurant as a chef. In addition to all these, you know that there is an office that can provide you people of your requirement by charging a fee, whenever you ask for it.
  • The term recruitment is often used to signify employment. It is true that normally when we say we have recruited such and such persons, it signifies that we have employed them. But as a part of staffing function, the term recruitment has limited scope. It just refers to one of the initial steps in employment of people i.e.. , searching for suitable candidates for the various job positions to be filled up from time to time in the organisation. Thus, recruitment is the process of finding and attracting suitable applicants for employment.

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