Staffing: Methods of Training, On-The-Job Methods, Off-The-Job Methods and Performance Appraisal (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Methods of Training

There are different methods of giving training to the employees which can be divided into two broad categories.

  • On-the-Job methods.
  • Off-the-Job methods.
Methods of Training

On-The-Job Methods

In these methods, the employees learn about their jobs while doing the work duly assisted by their supervisors or seniors. These methods encourage self-learning through practice. Job instruction or coaching, and job rotation, learning while working as an assistant to a senior, understudy positions, temporary promotions are some of the common methods of on-the-job training.

Off-The-Job Methods

These methods involve training employees away from the workplace so that experts may conduct the training and employees are free from immediate pressure of completing the jobs at hand. Lectures with demonstration, conferences, case discussions, video shows and films are some of the common methods used as off-the-job training methods. Then, there is another off the job method of training called vestibule training. The vestibule training refers to the training in specially designed workshops in which an attempt is made to duplicate as closely as possible the actual condition of the workplace. In such workshops a large number of employees can be trained in a relatively short period of time.

Performance Appraisal

  • In simple words, performance appraisal means judging the performance of employees. Specifically, it means judging the relative abilities of employees at work in a systematic manner. This enables managers to identify employees who are performing the assigned work satisfactorily, and those who are not able to do so, and why. To be fair, performance appraisal needs to be carried out using the same methods and keeping in view uniform standards of work.
  • The standard of performance or the expected level of performance of an employee on a job forms the basis of judging how well the employee has performed, and whether one employee is more efficient than the other in doing a similar job. The yardstick placed may be the desired quantity of output, the quality of work done, minimisation of wastage of materials caused in the process of work etc. The choice depends upon the type of job involved. On the other hand, quality of work done may be difficult to measure and hence performance appraisal may not be very accurate.


  • Compensation is one of the most important factors influencing relations between management and the workers. No organisation can attract and retain qualified employees without offering them a fair compensation.
  • The term ‘compensation’ refers to a wide range of financial and non-financial rewards to the employees for services rendered to the organisation. It includes wages, salaries, allowances and other benefits which an employer pays to his employees in consideration for their services. Compensation may be divided into two categories:
    • Base/primary compensation.
    • Supplementary compensation.
  • Base or primary compensation is a fixed amount paid every month to an employee. It includes wages, salary and allowances paid to an employee irrespective of his performance.
  • Supplementary compensation refers to the compensation paid to the employees to motivate them to work more efficiently. It is also known as incentive compensation. The incentives may be monetary or non-monetary. The monetary incentives include bonus, commission sales, or profit-sharing plans. The non-monetary incentives, on the other hand, include cordial relations with the supervisor, assignment of challenging jobs, recognition etc.

Promotion and Transfer

  • When an employee is assigned a job involving greater responsibilities, more pay, higher status and prestige than his/her present job, it is known as promotion. Thus, promotion refers to the advancement of an employee to a higher level or position. The main purpose of promotion is to make fuller use of the abilities of a person and also increase his job satisfaction. The basis of promotion may be seniority in service or merit, that is, superior abilities of the employees, or it may be seniority and merit, that is, merits being the same, one who is senior, is considered for promotion. When the performance of an employee is not satisfactory and it cannot be improved, he may be assigned a job of lower rank carrying lower status and pay. This is known as ′ Demotion ′ .
  • Transfer refers to a type of job change where any employee is assigned a different job of the same rank and pay, or when an employee is assigned a similar job in another unit of the firm. Thus, transfer does not usually involve any increase in pay or a superior status. It may be done simply to enable the employee to gain wider experience, or to give him greater job satisfaction, or to balance the requirements of staff in different units.

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