Co-Ordination and Controlling: Why Control Is Needed and Process of Control

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Why Control is Needed

  • Controlling is one of the important functions of management. It pinpoints the deviations on the basis of which managers can take corrective steps. If no control is exercised, work may not be done as desired and inefficiencies may remain undetected.

  • The importance of control has considerably increased now-a-days due to several reasons. Business units have grown in size and include a large variety of operations. There is greater competition in the market among different producers and sellers. Hence, the managers have to maintain and continuously improve the efficiency of operations. For this purpose, regular checking of the work done is required. This may also help in minimising the cost and wastage. It is also necessary that targets of achievement are raised from time to time and employees duly rewarded for better performance of work. This is possible only through the process of control. Thus, controlling

    • Helps in achieving the targets.

    • Helps in taking corrective action on time.

    • Helps in monitoring and improving employee’s performance.

    • Helps in achieving better coordination.

    • Helps in better planning.

    • Helps in minimising errors.

    • Facilitates decision making; and

    • Simplifies supervision.

Process of Control

  • The process of control consists of various steps. Look at the following example.

  • Ram is employed in a garments manufacturing company. His job is that of sewing trousers. His supervisor specifies that he should sew 20 trousers in a day. This is the first step of the control process, i.e., fixation of standards. At the end of the day, the supervisor counts and finds that Ram has completed only 18 trousers. Thus, the “measurement of performance” is the second step in the control process. Then he compares it with the standards. This is the third step of the control process called “comparison of performance with standards”. While comparing the performance of the other workers he finds that the two workers have produced less than the standard. When the supervisor tries to ascertain the reasons for the poor performance, he finds that machines on which the other two workers were working had developed some fault. This is the fourth step in controlling and is known as “ascertaining reasons for deviation”. Then, in order to avoid such unexpected defects in machinery in future, the supervisor decides that everyday there will be an inspection of all tools and equipment’s. This is “corrective action”, which is the fifth and last step in controlling.

  • Let us now discuss these steps in detail

Image of Process of control

Image of Process of Control

Establishment of Standards

  • Setting standard is the first requirement of control. Standards arise out of plans and provide the basis of comparison. There can be different types of standards, e.g., number of units to be produced per hour, cost of production per unit, permissible quantity of scrap and wastage per day, quality of the products and so on. As far as possible, the standards should be laid down in quantitative terms. A quantitative standard provides a concrete measure and helps in comparison. It is equally important that the standards fixed are realistic and attainable, neither too high nor very low. If these are too high, employees will be discouraged. On the other hand, if these are too low, the organisation will operate at a lower efficiency level leading to higher cost.

  • When standards may not be achieved fully, a range of tolerable deviations should also be fixed. This can be expressed in terms of minimum and maximum limits. Performance within the permissible range may not require any corrective action.

Measurement of Performance

When standards are established, the next step is to measure the performance at regular intervals. Measurement is not difficult in case of physical operations, e.g., units produced, cost incurred, time spent, etc., as these can be easily measured. Performance can be measured by observations, inspection and reporting. Generally, at lower levels, a detailed control is exercised at frequent intervals on the basis of observation and inspection. For higher levels of management, reports are prepared at regular intervals. Performance should be measured as early as possible so that if a corrective action is called for it may be taken in time.

Comparison of Performance with Standards

  • The next step in the control process is comparison of actual performance against the standards. In case the standards set are well defined and can be measured objectively,

  • becomes very simple. But, in case of activities where, it is difficult to develop measurable quantitative standards, the measurement and appraisal of performance becomes difficult.

  • Comparison of actual and standard performance may lead to three possible outcomes: actual performance may be (a) equal to, (b) more than, or (c) less than the standard. If actual performance is equal to the standard, managers need not take any action but where deviations are noticed, corrective action becomes necessary. The managers should ascertain whether these deviations are within the permissible range or outside it. Corrective action becomes necessary only for deviations which fall outside the permissible range.

Detecting the Reasons for Deviations

Before taking any corrective action, managers should try to ascertain the reasons for the occurrence of deviations. The fault may be that standards fixed were unattainable rather than the subordinate’s inefficiency. Again, the deviations might have been caused by the nature of instructions issued by the manager rather than due to the subordinate’s mistake. Hence, it is essential that the reasons, which caused the deviation, be ascertained to determine the appropriate corrective action.

Taking Corrective Action

Once the causes for deviations become known, the next step is to go in for a corrective action which may involve revision of standards, changing the methods of selection and training of workers or providing better motivation. As stated earlier, managers should concentrate only on major deviations. The minor deviations, i.e., deviations within permissible range, should not be a cause of anxiety. The rectification of deviations from the standards should be undertaken promptly so that further losses are avoided.

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