Finance Planning: Types of Capital Requirement, Fixed Capital and Factors Determine Fixed Capital Requirement (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Types of Capital Requirement

The capital requirement of any business unit can be broadly divided into two categories:

Types of Capital Requirement

In order to ascertain the amounts of such requirements for any business, one must understand the exact nature of fixed and working capitals and also the various factors that influence their requirement.

Fixed Capital

Fixed capital represents the requirement of capital for meeting the permanent or long-term financial needs of the business. It is primarily used for acquiring the fixed assets like land and buildings, plant and machinery, office equipment, furniture and fixtures etc. Fixed capital is required not only while establishing a new enterprise but also for meeting expansion requirement in the existing enterprises. The amount of such requirement can be assessed by preparing a list of fixed assets needed by the business unit and ascertaining their prices from the market. It may be noted that investment in fixed assets is a long-term commitment and the amount so invested cannot be withdrawn quickly. Hence, the funds for such requirement are always provided from owners՚ fund or raised by issuing shares and debentures and taking long-term loans from financial institutions.

Factors Determine Fixed Capital Requirement

In order to assess the fixed capital requirement for any business enterprise, one must be fully conversant with the factors that influence such requirement. These factors are summarised as follows:

Factors Determine Fixed Capital Requirement

Nature of Business

The amount of fixed capital requirement is determined primarily by the nature of business the firm is engaged in. Such requirement, for example, is very large in case of industrial establishments, shipping companies, public utilities, etc. which involve heavy investment in plant and machinery. The trading concerns (wholesalers and retailers) do not require much investment in the fixed assets.

Type of Products

It is not only the nature of business which determines the requirement of fixed capital but also the type of product involved. A firm manufacturing simple product like soap, toothpaste, stationery, etc. requires small amount of fixed capital as against the firms producing items like steel, cement, automobiles, etc.

Size of Business

A firm working on a large scale requires heavy investment in fixed assets as it has to establish large production capacity. Hence, its fixed capital requirement is larger than a firm which is operating on a small scale.

Process of Production

A firm which goes in for an automatic plant requires larger amount of fixed capital as compared to the firm which selects semi-automatic plant or depends more on manual labour for production of goods. Similarly, if a firm decides to buy most of the components needed for its products from the market rather than producing these in its own factory, it would need less fixed capital as compared to the one which manufactures each component (part) on its own. This is especially true of those automobile and machinery producers who simply act as assembling units.

Method of Acquiring Fixed Assets

The fixed assets, specially machinery and equipment, can be acquired either on cash basis (instant payment) or on instalments or leasing basis. Apparently, a firm which acquires such assets on cash basis needs larger amount of fixed capital as compared to the firm which decides to acquire it on instalment or lease basis.

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