Advertising and Salesmanship: Advertising, Objectives and Paid Form of Communication (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • In TV, radio, cinema hall, newspapers and magazines, you observe a number of advertisements. These advertisements relate to a variety of products ranging from daily use items like oil, soap, shampoo, clothes to durable goods like television. , refrigerator, automobile etc. For each product, a number of companies advertise their brand, as in case of washing powder, Surf, Ariel, Wheel, Doctor, Nirma etc, and in case of television, Videocon, Sony, BPL, LG etc.
  • The main purpose of advertising is to inform the prospective customers about the availability, quality, price etc. of their products and motivate them to buy. Besides advertising, sales promotion and personal selling are the other tools commonly used by the firms for promotion of their products. In this lesson, we shall learn about all these elements of the promotion mix.


  • While watching a movie in the cinema hall or a television at home you must have noticed that suddenly there is a break and a model appears on the screen displaying a product, indicating its special features, prices etc. This is followed by similar appearances relating to other products before the movie is resumed. These displays are known as advertisements which are used by different firms to inform a targeted group of customers about their product, its quality, availability, price etc. Likewise, you come across a number of advertisements for a variety of products in the newspapers and magazines. These are impersonal messages duly paid for, by firms to an audience who may be the current or prospective buyer of goods.
  • According to American Marketing Association “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.”
  • Thus, advertising is

Paid Form of Communication

Advertisements appearing in the newspapers, television, cinema halls etc. are duly paid for. The firms have to pay huge amounts for use of space in newspaper or time slot in television and radio etc.

Non-Personal Presentation of Message

In advertisements there is no face to face communication as it happens in case of personal selling. These are presentations through mass media and as such are impersonal in nature.

The Idea is to Promote Goods or Services

Advertising is done with a specific objective of promoting a product or service and increase their sale.

Issued by an identified sponsor

The advertisers who sponsor the advertisement are duly identifiable in the advertised messages. Take the case of advertisement of Lifebuoy soap on TV wherein the name and symbol of HUL also appears.

Table of Products Sponsor and Media
LifebuoyHindustan Unilever Ltd.TV/Radio/Newspaper
ChyawanprashDabur India Ltd.TV/Newspaper
TideProctor & GambleTV/Newspaper


After studying this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Define advertising.
  • Differentiate between ‘Advertising’ and ‘Publicity’ .
  • Explain the objectives of advertising.
  • Describe the advantages and limitations of Advertising.
  • Identify the various advertising media and their suitability.
  • Explain the meaning and importance of personal selling.
  • State the qualities of a good salesman.
  • Describe the meaning and objectives of sales promotion.
  • Identify the various tools used in sales promotion.

Distinction between Advertising and Publicity

  • Advertising is different from publicity which is a communication of any significant information about a company or its product to the public through non-personal media without any payment by the concerned business firm. Thus, publicity is basically an information about the product, service or a business firm which is communicated voluntarily by the media and is of commercial significance to the firm. The information may be passed through media like magazines, newspapers, radio, T. V. in the form of debates, discussions, news items, reports, editorials etc. The company does not pay anything to the media for such activities. Look at the following.
  • While reading the newspaper you may get a news about an ongoing trade fair in your state. It talks about the products of different companies exhibited there. After reading this news item you may feel interested in having a look at or buying one or more of these products.
  • In a newspaper there may be a column on review of movies. You read the ratings given to different movies by a critic and at times, feel interested in watching a particular movie.
  • In the television news, sometimes we get information about the quarterly financial results of a company. This may motivate us to buy its shares.
  • In all the above instances there is information about the product or services or the firm, which is communicated through print or electronic media, leading to significant responses by the public. Can it be called advertising? But these are non-sponsored and have not been paid for. As such, these are instances of publicity, and not advertising.

Difference between Advertising and Publicity

Table of Difference between Advertising and Publicity
PaymentIt is a paid form of dissemination of information. The firm has to pay for the use of space and time.The sponsor does not make any payment to the media as the information is published/communicated voluntarily.
Identified SponsorThere is an identified sponsor, that is, the business firm which wants to advertise its products or services.There is no identified sponsor. Media communicates the information as it considers it newsworthy.
ControlThe advertising firm has full control over the content, type, size, duration and frequency of the message.The concerned firm has no control over the contents, type, and size of the information.
PurposeIt is intended to give favourable and positive impression about the company and its products.This may have favourable or unfavourable impression on the public about the company and its products.

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