Wage Employment: Importance and Types of Wage Employment, Technical and Ministerial Jobs

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Importance of Wage Employment

  • Wage employment provides a regular and steady income for the individual to earn his livelihood and to sustain his family. In this section let us discuss its importance.

  • Wage employment not only assures a regular and steady income but also ensures various other benefits like medical facilities, housing facility, travel concessions, loans and advances, insurance, old age benefits like – pension, gratuity etc.

  • Wage employment is a must in almost every sphere to carry out several tasks. Even self-employment generates wage employment, although not immediately but when it expands.

  • Wage employment can be made as a career and individuals can excel in their respective fields. For example, to be a renowned scientist it is not required to own the entire laboratory. Rather any one can start the career as an employee of a big laboratory.

  • Wage employment involves much less risk than self-employment. There is no need to invest in land, building etc. for wage employment.

  • Everyone is not capable of being self-employed by starting a business or profession. Wage employment is normally undertaken as a vocation by majority.

Types of Wage Employment

There are various types of wage employment available for an individual to choose from. However, each type has its own criteria for recruiting people. For example, there are some jobs for which the minimum qualification required by the individual is graduation. For other jobs, it may be High school or intermediate or post-graduation or some professional/ vocational qualification. Let us restrict ourselves to the types of wage employment that are available after completing Secondary or Senior Secondary courses, with or without having some extra technical, vocational or professional qualifications. Considering the types of jobs available after passing the Secondary or Senior Secondary courses, we can categorise wage employment as Technical Jobs and Ministerial Jobs.

Technical Jobs

Jobs that require some kind of a technical skill to perform the tasks are called Technical Jobs. For example, a mechanic in a motor garage, a welder in a fabrication unit, a chemist in a drug manufacturing unit, a plumber in a water supply unit, an electrician in a repair shop, a DTP operator in a publishing unit, a driver in an office etc. are all said to be technical staff of the respective organisations. In order to enter into a technical job, you need to acquire a technical skill by doing a technical course in any institute that provide technical training after getting the class 10th or 12th certificate. For instance, you can join any computer institute to learn DTP and join in a publishing/printing unit. Some examples of such jobs are cadets of NDA, soldiers of Army, sailors of Navy etc. A list of some of the technical jobs are given below:

Table of Technical Jobs
Title: Table of Technical Jobs



Extra Qualifications Training

Computer Operator

Office/ business house/ shops/ government organisations.

Computer training, DTP work

Computer Programmer

Software companies/ consultants, etc

Software packages and computer programming

Laboratory Assistants

Educational institutions

Must have a science background

Library Assistant

Educational institutions, Public library

Certificate course in Library and Information Sciences

Fitter, Mechanic, Electrician, Welder, cook, driver, generator operator, telephone operator, Xerox machine operator, etc

Factories, Large offices, commercial complexes, cinema halls, guest houses, etc

Requisite training in the respective area

Ministerial Jobs

These are basically clerical jobs available in Government offices. Ministerial jobs also include cashiers, accountants, storekeepers, personal assistants, salesmen etc. The following table gives a small indication of various ministerial jobs available after secondary or senior secondary.

Table of Ministerial Jobs
Title: Table of Ministerial Jobs

Job Category

Qualifications required


Clerical Jobs in Government Offices: LD clerk, UD clerk, Account assistants

Secondary/Senior Secondary

18-25 years

Railways: Booking Clerk, Accounting Clerk, Goods Clerks, Train Assistant etc.

Secondary/Senior Secondary Through SSC & RRB

18-32 Years

Banks: Clerk cum Cashier, Clerk cum Typist

Secondary/Senior Secondary Through BSRB and RBI-SSB

18-26 years

Offices/ Stores/ Shops: Storekeeper, salesman, office assistants etc.

Secondary/ Senior Secondary

18 Plus

Avenues of Wage Employment

Availability of wage employment depends primarily on the local or regional job vacancies. Some of the major avenues of wage employment are listed below:

Avenues of Wage Employment

Avenues of Wage Employment

Avenues of Wage Employment

Wage Employment in Small Factory/Shops

This category includes employment in workshops, provision stores, supermarket, departmental store, stationary shop, chemist’s shope.

Business Firms

Manufacturing and trading organisations, newspaper offices, advertising agencies, etc. also provide wage employment to a large number of people.

Service Organisations

Avenues of wage employment also exist in service organizations like railways, banks, financial institutions, insurance companies, motor transport companies, airways, telecommunications, and advertising agencies.

Government and Semi-Government Organisations

These organisations include municipal offices, state and central government offices, government educational and technical institutions, government hospitals and post and telegraph offices.

Public Enterprises

Public enterprises are owned, managed and controlled by central and state governments and include State Electricity Boards, Water Supply undertakings, Manager Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL), Shipping Corporation of India, Port trusts, Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Indian Oil Corporation (IOCL), National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Machine Tools Limited (HMT), and other State Government enterprises.

Private Institutions

These include private schools, colleges and other educational institutions, private hospitals, nursing homes, etc.

Defence and Allied Services

Defence Services including Army, Navy and Air Force provide employment of different types.

Agriculture and Allied Fields

This include employment in agricultural farms, plantations, dairy, poultry firms, horticulture etc.

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