Major office Activities: Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange (EPABX) System, Accounting Machines and Mail Room Equipment

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Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange (EPABX) System

Under this system there is no need for telephone operators because the system is automatic. The internal communication from one extension is possible by dialling the relevant internal phone number. However, external communications are sent through operator or by dialling a particular number say ‘zero’. Programming of telephone connections is also possible through PABX. If the person called is not available in his seat, the connection will automatically shift to other extension as per the programme.

Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange (EPABX)

Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange (EPABX)


It is an automatic system of office inter-communications. It does not require an exchange. Multicore cable is used throughout the installation so that each telephone can be connected direct to every other.

Accounting Machines

Accounting services may be provided manually or with the help of accounting machines. The mechanisation of accounting is becoming increasingly important in large organisations as they have to cope with a large amount of figure work. Accuracy and speed are the main features of accounting machines and it enables analysis of various types of figures for different purposes within minutes or even seconds. Some of the more common types of accounting machines are:

Adding Machines

Various types of adding machines are available in the market. They can be operated manually or electrically, and they may be listing or non-listing types. Listing machines provide the printed record while the non-listing machines give the required result.

Calculating Machines

A calculating machine can perform a variety of functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, percentages, square and cube roots etc. Scientific calculators can perform many more functions. Calculating machines contribute greatly to office efficiency by eliminating routine mental calculations. They also contribute to economy in staffing and can perform a variety of functions with speed and accuracy.

Cash Registers

These machines record on paper roll cash receipts. The customers in departmental stores need receipts and cash memos. The operator receives the amount, keeps it in shelves made below the machine and issues receipt or cash memo. The machine prints the amounts on rolled paper which is visible through a glass panel on the top of the machine. It automatically records cumulative total of receipts. At the close of the day, the owner or manager can open the machine lock to know the total sales. The amount kept in shelves can be checked with the cumulative total.

Mail Room Equipment

The mail room staff is always busy in repetitive duties concerning the inward and outward mail. In large organisations, the volume of mail is also large. So, it becomes difficult and time consuming to handle large amount of mails. It also causes monotony and boredom. Use of various mechanical devices helps to reduce monotony and increase the efficiency of mailing operations. The following types of equipment and machines are used in the mail room.

Letter Opener

Letters may be opened by hand or by the letter-opening machine. The machine is used when the number of mails received is very large. It operates manually or electrically at a great speed. It can open 100 to 500 letters per minute.

Folding Machine

A machine of this type is of great service when letters are sent in large numbers. This machine is capable of folding papers to the size required for insertion in the envelopes. A folding machine can fold 5,000 to 20,000 sheets per hour. It is possible to fold, insert and make letters ready for mailing with this machine. The machine is to be adjusted as per the needs of folding.

Sealing Machine

This machine is used to automatically moisten the flaps of envelopes and seal them properly. The machine is very useful in those offices where a large number of envelopes have to be sealed every day. Certain machines are designed to seal with wax. Another type of machine is available in which a strip is pasted on the flap.

Mailing Scale

  • In big business organisations large quantity of mail is sent every day. Postal stamps on mail are to be affixed as per postal rates which are prescribed according to weight. The Mailing Scale is used to weigh so that correct postage stamps can be affixed on them.

  • Numbering, Dating and Time Recording Machines: After opening the mail, letters are stamped with time and date of receipt. A serial number is given for numerical reference. An automatic numbering machine is popular for stamping serial numbers of letters received.

Addressing Machine

This machine is used to print addresses on envelopes, wrappers, parcels etc. to be sent frequently to a large number of regular customers. In Addressograph machine inked ribbon is used to print the addresses from plates. List of addresses once prepared can be repeatedly used any number of times. The address plates are stacked on a hopper fitted to the machine. The required plates are automatically selected and fed into the machine. These machines may be operated manually or electronically.

Franking Machine

This machine is used to make impressions of the required denomination of postage stamps on the outbound letters and envelopes. It is very popular in large offices where thousands of letters have to be stamped every day. The Franking Machine can be hired under a license from the Post Office. Rent is charged for use of the machine. The letter to be stamped is inserted in the machine and a handle is operated. The machine marks the letter with the required denomination of the postage stamp. It stops when the total value of the postage is used up. It can be again re-set by the Post Office on further payment.


The FAX service enables instant transmission of the facsimile of an entire document. It can send handwritten and printed matter as well as pictures, charts and diagrams to different locations within or outside the country. The advantage of this service over TELEX is that it sends messages without the need for typing. This service is permitted on existing telephone lines on a dial-up basis. The FAX machine is to be procured and owned by the user and should be attached to the telephone lines.

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