Data Processing Concept: Introduction, Data, Data Processing and Organization

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Data Processing in Image

Data Processing in Image


Generating and organizing this data in a useful way is called data processing. In this lesson, we shall discuss about various terms such as Data, Data processing, Information, and data processing system.


  • Data are representations of facts pertaining to people, things, ideas and events.

  • Data are represented by symbols such as letters of the alphabets, numerals or other special symbols.

Data Processing

Data Processing image

Data Processing Image

  • Data processing is the act of handling or manipulating data in some fashion.

  • Regardless of the activities involved in it, processing tries to assign meaning to data.

We use the term 'data processing system' to include the resources that are used to accomplish the processing of data.

Manual Data Processing

  • Manual data processing refers to data processing.

  • Requires humans to manage and process the data throughout its existence.

  • Manual data processing utilizes non-technological tools.

Automatic Data Processing

  • Automated data processing is the creation and implementation of technology.

  • Technology includes computers and other communications.

Electronic Data Processing

  • Electronic data processing (EDP) can refer to the use of automated methods.

  • It is process commercial data.


Information thus can be defined as “data that has been transformed into a meaningful and useful form for specific purposes”.

  • There is no hard and fast rule for determining

  • Data becomes information.

For Ex: - a number of data items are put together, such as your name, address articles you bought, the price, the tax and the amount you paid.

Data Organization

Data Organisation image

Data Organisation Image

  • Data Processing Cycle (also called Information Processing Cycle) and the components of a computer

  • Data can be arranged in a variety of ways.

Data Item

  • A data item is the smallest unit of information stored in computer file.

  • It is a single element used to represent a fact such as an employee's name, item price, etc.


  • Data items are physically arranged as fields in a computer file.

  • Length may be fixed or variable.

  • All individuals have 3-digit employee numbers, a 3-digit field is required to store the particular data.


  • A record is a collection of related data items or fields.

  • Each subsequent record contains all the data for a given employee.

  • Related item is grouped together to form a record.


  • Collection of records is called a file.

  • A file contains all the related records for an application.

  • Files are stored on some medium, such as floppy disk, magnetic tape or magnetic disk.


  • The collection of related files is called a database.

  • A database contains all the related files for a particular application.

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