# Data Entry: Formulas Functions and Charts: Introduction and To use more functions

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## Introduction

Formulas are used for simple addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as well as for complex calculations. Functions are built in formulas. The users have to provide cell references and addresses only. These are called arguments of the function and are given between the left and right parenthesis.

## Formulas and Functions

A formula can have any or all of the following elements;

Must begin with the 'equal to' = sign.

Mathematical operators, such as + (for addition) and / (for division) and logical operators such as <, >.

References of cell (including named ranges and cells).

Text or Values.

Functions related to the worksheets, for example SUM or AVERAGE.

### Copying a Formula

examples of formulas:

If , then

(i) Will give result as

(ii)will give result as

(iii) will give result as

### Auto Sum Feature

Following steps explains how to do that;

Click on the cell F3.

Select the Formulas tab.

Click AutoSum from the function library group.

Select Sum

Press Enter

Sum ( )

Adds all the numbers in a range of cells.

Syntax SUM (number1,number2, ...)

Maximum number of arguments can be 255 i.e. number1, number2 ... number255. Sum function is having different forms. You can choose as per your need.

### SUMIF (Range, Criteria, Sum Range)

This form of sum functions is used to add the cells with respective to a given criteria.

Range: A group of adjacent cells.

Cells within a range must be numbers or names, arrays, or references which are having numbers. In sum if function, the blank and text values are ignored.

### Criteria

It can be a number, expression, or text to define which cells will be considered for the addition e.g. criteria can be fixed as 12, “12”, “>12”, or “mangoes”.

### Sum Range

These are the actual cells to be added if their corresponding cells in range match criteria. In case the sum range is avoided, then the cells in range are both evaluated by criteria and added if they match criteria.

### Average Function ( )

It helps you to get the average of the numbers. It returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments.

### Min Function ( )

It helps you to get the minimum of the numbers. Returns the smallest number in a set of values. Syntax MIN (number1, number2...)

### Max Function ( )

It helps you to get the maximum of the numbers. Returns the largest number in a set of values. Syntax MAX (number1, number2...)

## To Use More Functions

Select Formula Tab

Choose AutoSum from function library group, from formula ribbon

Click on More Functions… as shown below.

## Charts

This section explains how you can create simple charts from the data. Formatted charts come in various types for diverse goals, ranging from columns to pies, from lines to surfaces, etc.

### Types of Chart

You can create a new chart or can change the existing chart, from the wide range of chart subtypes available for each type of available chart types as given below;

Column Charts

Line Charts

Pie charts

Bar Charts

Area Charts

XY (Scatter) charts

Stock charts

Surface charts

Doughnut charts

Bubble charts

Radar charts

### Components of a Chart

Chart Title

X-Axis Title

Y-Axis Title

X-Axis Category

Y-Axis Value

Data Labels

Data Labels

Tick Mark

Grid Lines

### Steps to Draw Chart

Enter data in the work sheet: Suppose you entered data.

Now select data range: By using the mouse, highlight the range of data you want to take.

Click Insert Tab and select a chart type from the chart group.

Select the sub type of chart

Select the Title of the chart

Give a name to X-Axis

Now, click on the Axis Title and write an X-axis title

### Editing of a Chart

**How to change the legend position**

Click on Layout tab. Then click on Legend option available in Labels Group. Now choose a position to show legend.

**How to change the position of the Data Labels**

Click on Layout tab. Then click on Data Label option available in Labels Group. Now choose a format to display data labels

**How to show Data Tables Along with Chart, with or without Legend Keys**

Click on Layout tab. Then click on Data Table option available in Labels Group. Now choose a style to display data table

**How to Hide/Unhide Grid Lines (Horizontal and Vertical)**

Click on Layout tab. In the Axis Group, click on Gridlines option then choose Primary Horizontal Grid Lines. Now select appropriate style from the available options (None, Major Gridlines, Minor Gridline, Major and Minor Gridlines)