Challenges Before Indian Economy: Providing Education and Health Care

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Providing Education

Poor education leads to many consequences. According to census 2011, India literacy rate was 74.04% out of which 82.14 per cent for males, 65.46 percent for females. India stood at 168th Rank out of 234 countries as per UNESCO literacy report. So, Education is a challenge before India. Programs implemented by India for Education:

Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009

  • Started in April 2010

  • Aim: To provide free education for all children between 6 to 14 years of age.

  • Accordingly, the government will open more and more primary and upper primary schools and appoint teachers to teach.

Schemes for Elementary and Secondary Education

Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA): Implemented by the central government in partnership with state governments to give education to children in the age group 6-14 years. The goals of this scheme are

  • enrolment of all children in school

  • Retention of children in the school up to upper primary level

  • Hosting “back to school camps”

  • Building education guarantee centers

  • Closing the gap arising due to caste, gender etc.

SSA has an important component for girl child, called National Program for Education for Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL). Under this “model schools” and residential schools for girls called Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya’s (KGBVs) were established.

  • National program of Mid-day meals in School: Launched in 1995, to attract children into schools and retain them by providing healthy diet. Also, it helps to bring children from different sections of the society together and develop sense of belongingness towards each other. Crores of children are getting benefits under this scheme.

  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA): Launched in 2009 to increase the enrolment ratio in the secondary stage. Funds contribution by Central and State government in the ratio of 75:25. For the north east region this ratio is 90:10.

  • Inclusive education for the disabled at secondary stage (IEDSS): To provide 100% assistance by central government for education of children with special needs who are studying class IX-XII stage.

  • Saakshar Bharat: To promote education and literacy among the adults above 15 years of age and the special focus of this program will be women.

Program for Higher and Technical Education

Higher education starts after secondary education and it includes technical and vocational education. To compete with other nations country, need highly skilled people. Those skills can be improved by providing higher education. The government of India has taken several steps to develop higher and technical education as given below –

  • India is having more than 800 universities including central universities, state universities, deemed to be universities and private universities.

  • New model colleges will be set up at educationally backwards districts of the country.

  • To promote IT education 23 Indian institutes of information technology (IIIT) were set up.

  • Under National Importance, Indian Institute of Technologies (IITs -23), National Institute of Technology (NITs-31) were set up.

  • To promote research in science the government has set up five Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) in various parts of the country.

  • For professional management Indian Institute of Management (IIMS-20) were set up

Providing Health Care

  • Due to lack of proper health care facility every year many people are dying. Most of the deaths are of poor people due lack of nutrition and hygienic surroundings.

  • Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR): Annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births due to causes related to pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. As per 2014-16 reports MMR was 130.

  • Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): Number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. As per 2016, IMR is 34.

  • Child Mortality Rate (CMR): Number of deaths under 5 years of age in a given year per 1,000 live births. As per world bank CMR is 39 in 2017.

  • To improve health condition of our nation, government has been implementing many policies. Those are

National Rural Health Mission (NRHM):

  • Started in 2005.Aim is to provide affordable and qualitative health service to rural population by removing diseases like Malaria, Kala azar, Blindness, T.B, Filaria, Leprosy etc. In order to do that NHRM has started revitalizing the existing primary and community health centers. NRHM is also running many mobile medical units (MMUs) which run from one place to another to provide health care at doorstep.

  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY): In order to save the life of the mother at the time of the delivery.

  • Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY): In India health care service facilities are unbalanced. Under this scheme government decided to implement top medical institutes and hospitals. Ex: All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS -9). It also aims at upgrading existing government medical colleges in different states to super specialty hospitals.

  • National AIDS Control: AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a dangerous health disorder which is caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). About 2.1 million people are living in India with HIV. And India is the third largest HIV epidemic in the world in 2017. HIV attacks the human body and destroy the immunity power.

  • Even though, Indian Government making many policies the allocated budget for health is around 1.2% of total expenditure. This is low compared to other neighbor countries allocation for their health.

Controlling Price Rise

  • Prices prevailing in market should be affordable by citizens of the country. As demand increases for goods prices will increase because of shortage. Another reason of shortage could be wastage of the good due to lack of proper storage facility. Also, sellers create shortage to charge more prices for the good. Hoarding often takes place in case of essential commodities such as onion, rice, medicines etc.

  • Inflation: Inflation is an increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

The government plays a major role in controlling prices in the following ways

  • Fix Minimum support price for farmers in order to avoid suicides of farmers.

  • Provide Ceiling price in order to protect consumers.

  • Helping producers in order to keep produce safely by building cold storages.

  • By keeping a strict vigil on hoarding of essential commodities and punishing the guilty since hoarding is a crime.

Achieving Higher Economic Growth

Every country works to improve their economic condition. This is possible when all the components of the economy work together. Economic Growth can be defined in terms of Total national income and per capita income. These can be improved when all sectors (Agricultural, Manufacturing and Service) sector working together. In order to achieve economic growth India encouraging -

  • Establishment of small scale, large scale and heavy industries.

  • Use of better inputs in the form of better seeds, fertilizers etc. to improve food grain production

  • Development of infrastructure in the form of roads, railway lines, Airports, communication towers, power etc.

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