Environment Sustainable Development: Water and Noise Pollution

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Water Pollution

  • Water pollution: Contamination of water bodies like rivers, ponds, oceans etc. with undesirable substances is called water pollution.

  • Water pollutants: Detergents, fertilizers and pesticides, chemicals and effluents

Image of Water Polution

Image of Water Polution

Image of Water Polution

Causes of Water Pollution

  • Discharge from sewage treatment plants and sewage pipes from cities and towns.

  • Industrial effluents released by factories into water bodies.

  • Over utilization of chemicals like pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture.

  • Release of heated or radioactive water by power plants into water.

  • Oil spills and leakages from tankers and oil rigs during water-way transportation.

  • Growth of algae in water bodies.

Harmful Effects of Water Pollution

  • Danger to aquatic living organisms this led to disturbance in the food chain of ecosystem.

  • Encourage waterborne diseases like Cholera, Typhoid and Diarrhea etc.

  • Toxic chemicals may alter the acidity and conductivity of water which may cause death to human beings.

  • Many skin related problems.

Control of Water Pollution

  • Disposal of sewage water after proper sewage treatment.

  • Avoid the use of fertilizers before rain

  • Segregation of wastes (radio-active elements) before they deliver into water bodies.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution: Noise pollution is an excessive and displeasing environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.

Sources of Noise Pollution

  • Vehicular traffic, like cars, buses, airplanes, trains etc.

  • Industrial processes like stone crushing, making of steel plates, sawing, printing, etc.

  • Construction works like roads, buildings etc.

  • Various household activities like celebrations of festivals using crackers and Music Rock Bands.

Effects of Noise Pollution

  • Temporary or permanent loss of hearing due to high noise pollution.

  • Causes physical illness like hypertension, cardiovascular problems and high blood pressure.

  • Also causes mental illness like headache, lack of sleep etc.

Control Measures

  • Need to reduce utilization of substances like crackers

  • Vehicles should reduce noise levels by keeping them in proper condition.

  • Traffic should be handled properly.

  • Construction and industrial activities should keep sound absorbers to reduce noise.

Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution: Contamination or degradation of soil with undesirable substances is called Soil pollution. This is also called as Soil Degradation.

Causes of Soil Degradation

  • Excessive use of chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides.

  • Excessive use of plastics

  • Overgrazing by animals in the fields.

Effects of Soil Degradation

  • Reduce the yield potential of the soil due to lack of humus (natural nutrients and organic matter in soil).

  • Lead to pollution of ground water due to excess chemicals in soil.

  • Contamination of food due to chemicals that may result diseases and death.

  • Imbalance of biodiversity due to extinction of certain plants and animals.

Habitat Degradation

It is the process in which habitats lose their normal functioning or quality support native life. This leads to a reduced carrying capacity of animals or plants in that particular area.

Causes of Habitat Degradation

  • Deforestation and wood extraction for the timber industry.

  • Conversion of forest land into agricultural land and for construction of houses.

  • Slashing or slash-and-burn agricultural methods, where forests are burnt, and crops grown using the ashes as a natural fertilizer.

Effects of Habitat Degradation

  • Imbalance in biodiversity. That leads to extinction of certain plants and animals.

  • Lead to natural disasters like floods, drought, crop failure and water contamination.

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