NIOS Class 12 English: Chapter 11 Summary of Short Theme-Based Passage- ‘READING with UNDERSTANDING’

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Short Theme-Based Passage Section 11.1 Summary of - ‘Restoring Childhood’

  • Childhood is the most beautiful phase of everyone՚s life as it does not include any burden of work or any major responsibility but in many of cases especially girl child do not have any time for childhood.
  • As we have seen around us much of the work that girls and younger children do is carried out in a family group or domestic setting such as house hold works, prepare meal or take care of little siblings. So, girls are not perceived as labour.
  • For example:
  • The concept of “child servitude” does not count domestic labour of girls even if it՚s full-time work, harmful to their growth, necessary for survival and equally unavoidable, it might being ignored as girls′ work is non-payable and nurturing tasks which do not have a visible market value at all.
  • Whereas a boy working on gem stones in a small manufacturing unit in Jaipur is easily recognized.
  • And if more harmful work of a girl cutting grass on a precipitous mountain slope in Garhwal is ignored.
  • Such a concept of child labour is clearly shows how we are differentiating term of child servitude.
  • The majority of child workers in India are cultivators and agricultural labourers.
  • It՚s usually seen that poor children have to do many household responsibilities and survival activities like minding siblings, grazing cattle, collecting fuel wood and fodder as part of their daily lives, whether they are at school or not.
  • But main focus of India՚s child labour documentation is on the dehumanizing conditions of children labouring in dangerous industries, such as the match and fireworks factories of Sivakasi (Tamil Nadu) or the glass-works of Firozabad (U. P.) .
  • Many studies also include self-employed and ‘street’ children of Delhi, Bombay, Bangalore and other big cities.
  • Most of the documentations and studies mainly focus on rights of child on healthy childhood.
  • Negation of rural child workers shows partiality of Indian administration, research and the media, and seductive idea that rural life is somewhat idyllic but this partiality is not peculiar to middle class.

Short Theme-Based Passage Section 11.2 Summary of - ‘MARKETING of COCONUT PRODUCTS’

  • Copra is primarily used for extracting oil.
  • After milling about 6.9 lakh tonnes of copra around 4.5 lakh tonnes of coconut oil can be produced in India.
  • Tamil Nadu and Kerala are the capital of coconut oil production in India by producing 90% of oil.
  • Kerala is the only state to use coconut oil in cooking.
  • Two primary substitutes coconut oil are palm oil (It is devoted from palm fruit) and palm kernel oil (It is edible plant oil which is the kernel of the oil palm tree Elaeis guineensis) .
  • The former competes with coconut oil in the edible oils segment and the latter in the non-edible oils segment of the consumption base.
  • Compare to other edible oils palm oil prices are cheaper globally.
  • Palm oil is India՚s most imported oil.
  • Different coconut products demand is increase in market as coconut oil՚s demand is decreased.
  • So that it becomes essential to enhance the production of coconut-based commodities such as packaged coconut water, coconut cream etc. but competition is very high in this area.
  • Cost of 200 ml coconut water is almost ₹ 13 which is higher than easily available soft drinks and even other natural drinks like milk which is nearly sold around ₹ 14 per litter.