NIOS Class 12 English: Chapter 15 Summary- ‘READING with UNDERSTANDING’

Doorsteptutor material for competitive exams is prepared by world's top subject experts: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Section 15.1 Summary of Seen or Unseen Passage- ‘Biomedical Waste’

  • Biomedical waste is a noteworthy important solid which includes anatomical waste, syringes, gauze, absorbents, glass, etc.
  • The main sources of biomedical wastes are by hospitals and clinics which cause serious health problems.
  • As we have seen, mostly these biochemical wastes decompose either in front of clinics or in street corners.
  • Rag-pickers are mostly children who pick up these wastes by hand which might be infecting by the hepatitis virus (jaundice causing virus) and other dangerous viruses.
  • Australia and other countries have made a low to dump the waste by safe transportation in special containers, and burn them.
  • Solid wastes are area of concern because; the dumping of solid wastes spoils the beauty of cities and towns, causes of many health problems and also become breeding grounds for disease-carrying vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, rats and cockroaches.
  • According to reports, about 8,00, 000 flies can be produced in one cubic metre of garbage.
  • The flies carry pathogenic organisms which cause diseases such as dysentery, diarrhoea and many more.
  • Rat՚s carries insects and other bio-organisms which are responsible for causing plague, during 1994 plague was outbreak in Surat, Gujarat.
  • According to report, Solid wastes are causes around 25 human diseases.
  • These biomedical wests can also cause fire hazards and it may also lead to accidents.
  • Now days the accumulation of solid waste is become biggest problem and it seems difficult to get solution of it unlike other types of pollution still any preventive measures are not available for this problem.
  • Till now many solutions to the dumping problem have been proposed.
  • Currently as temporary solution management collect the refuse from various parts of the city, transport it to a remote place, where it is burn or composted or simply dumped again.
  • The easiest solution is to recycle or reuse the waste.
  • This solves the disposal of wastes and also increase income besides recompense for the expenditure incurred on its collection and transportation.

Section 15.2 Summary of Seen or Unseen Passage- ‘is Television Harmful or Not?’

Television Doing More Harm Than Good

  • Television which is also known as T. V. is become very popular now a days. We do not even remember how the life before T. V. was?
  • According to a repots, 79% of the world՚s households owned a television set till 2013.
  • Television had made people good for nothing, as they do not have time to read books, visit friends, do not listen music or pursue their hobbies.
  • Everyone just has hurry to reach home and watch T. V. even when they are eating.
  • T. V. has made worst impact on child as they got so badly involved with T. V. programs, they forget their food, physical activities, study even sleep also. Some of violence program affect children deeply.
  • T. V. had made people lazy and cuts off from the world of reality.
  • T. V. has made people idiots as ability of thinking is getting less because deep involvement in T. V.
  • So considering all these things it՚s become necessary to ban in India.

Television is Doing More Good Than Harm

  • Television is a mass media communication system which we can also wonders of the modern world.
  • Some of us consider T. V. as an idiot box but if we look at the bright site it might also be magic carpet.
  • Many people do have wish to visit the whole world but it՚s not possible because of financial condition but T. V has makes it possible as we can see all the corners of the world at home.
  • Many interesting educational films are telecast.
  • It unites the people of the world.
  • Of course, some programmes are bad, but it՚s totally up to us whether we want to watch it or not. Although it՚s not fault of T. V. , it՚s us who do not have control on our mind for when to stop.
  • Everyone must watch good programmes and be educated, and must have T. V because it brings the whole world together.