NIOS Class 12 English: Chapter 17 Summary of- ‘INDIA-HER PASTAND FUTURE’

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Section 17.1 Summary of – ‘What is India?’

  • Understand and describe the India of today would be the task of a brave man. To describe tomorrow՚s India would border on rashness.
  • Nehru ji says that what is India? is a question which has come back again and again to his mind. The early history of India puts him in wonder.
  • India has past of a virile and vigorous race with a questioning spirit and supports for free inquiry, and even in its earliest known period giving evidence of a mature and tolerant civilization.
  • Indians have sprite of accepting life with joys and its burdens, it was ever searching for the ultimate and the universal.
  • But gradually freshness in thoughts had loose and became stale and the vitality and energy of youth gave place to crabbed age.
  • Spirit of adventure has replaced by lifeless routine and the broad and exciting vision of the world was cabined and limited and lost in caste divisions, narrow social customs and traditional.
  • India had adopted the mass of people which had made place into her great ocean of humanity.
  • India had never forgotten the thoughts that had stirred in the days of her youthful vigour. India was strongly influenced by Islam and Muslim invasions.
  • Following the western colonial powers, India had bring a new type of domination and a new colonialism and, at the same time, the impact of fresh ideas and the industrial civilization that was growing up in Europe.
  • This period had ended after a long struggle which had resulted in independence and now India have to face the future with all this burden of the past and the confused dreams and beginning of the future that will be build.

Section 17.2 Summary of – ‘the Right Path to Future’

  • Nehru ji says it՚s a big confusion should we follow the lead given by the West and forget our past? Or, should we try to revive the past glory of India? Gandhi showed us the right path.
  • Due to this confusion India is standing at the point where it has two paths, forward to the future and backwards to the past and being pulled in both directions.
  • To resolves this conflict, we have to develop a structure for living which can take care of our material needs and carry on our mind and spirit.
  • Which new ideals or old ideals can be varied and adapted to the new world, can we place before our people, and how people can influence into wakefulness and action?
  • Change is important but continuity is also necessary.
  • The future has to be built on the foundations laid in the past and in the present.
  • By forgetting past or completely breaks up with it will be looks like uproot ourselves and sapless, dry up.
  • Gandhiji՚s ideology was to do not forget firmly rich traditions of our race and our soil and, along with this also function on the revolutionary plane.
  • Gandhi ji strongly believe on truth and peaceful means. So that he built on old foundations, and also orient the structure towards the future.
  • Living is a continual adjustment to changing conditions.
  • Social change is become more important because of continues change in technological from last half-century and continual maladjustment.
  • World՚s most of economic problems are solved by science and technology, particular it had made more impact to provide necessities of life to everyone all over the world.
  • But we must have to keep in mind those methods which we adopt that must depend upon the background and cultural development of a country or a community.

Section 17.3 Summary of – ‘is Nehru Happy with Morden’

Nehru is both happy and disappointed with Morden India. What makes him happy? Why he had some fears? Let us find out.

  • Today՚s India is combination of both hope and anguish of remarkable advances and at the same time of inertia; of a new spirit and also the dead hand of the past and of privileges; of an overall and growing unity and many disruptive tendencies.
  • But there is a great energy and confusion in people՚s minds and activities.
  • India and a people rooted in this remote past, and they faced struggle to change in the past, so we have to march forward rapidly and with determined ways.
  • So Nehru ji have confusion about come out of the labour and the tumults of the present generation.
  • Ad he further added that tomorrow of India is not predictable for him and he can only hopes for best.
  • He wants that India should be advance on the material plane so that Five Year Plans can be fulfil to raise the standard of living of her vast population:
  • For this he wants less amount of conflicts in the name of religion or caste, language or province to cease, and a classless and casteless society which provides opportunity for individual to grow according to their worth and ability.
  • And Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru ends his speech with the hope, that the curse of caste will be ended because democracy or socialism is not based on cast.


How to Use Correct Form of Verbs

  • Verbs are the action world in the sentence which shows what subject is doing. Verbs are main part of the sentence and make sentence meaningful.
  • There are 3 forms of verbs: Present, Past, Past Participial
  • To choose correct form of verb, it՚s important to identify the tense used in sentence.
  • Verb must have to match the subject of sentence.
  • For ex:
    • Rima is ________ game. (play)
      • Rima is playing game. (present continuous)
    • Rima will ________ game. (play)
      • Rima will play game. (simple future)
    • Rima will be ________ game. (play)
      • Rima will be playing game. (future continues)
    • Rima will have ________ game (play)
      • Rima will have played game. (future perfect)
    • Rima will have been ________ game. (play)
      • Rima will have been playing game. (present perfect continuous)

How to Write Summary

Summary is a compressed (conclusion) version of given paragraph. Summary is shortening form of given text which gives overall description with important facts.

Points to be consider while making summary

  • Writing summary can be difficult task you may have to read the text carefully to understand more details
  • Must take notes, and then form sentence in sequence using that notes but they must reflect important aspects of text.
  • Use simple present and simple past tense to write summary.
  • Use own words to write summaries.
  • Remember, summary is not outlines, it՚s should be complete paragraph.
    • Do not include personal opinions.
  • Review your written summary carefully.

Format of Summary

  • Introduction
  • Main points of passage
  • Conclusion

Summary is most effective way to strengthen the grammar base.

Through summary writing you may learn how to use noun, adverbs, adjectives and verbs.

Enhance focusing skill