NIOS Class 12 English: Chapter 23 Summary- ‘READING with UNDERSTANDING’

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Section 23.1 Summary of Seen or Unseen Passage- ‘Rajamani’

  • A young boy of 12 years named Rajamani belongs to a village in Tamil Nadu.
  • He had lost his father so discontinued his education after class 6 to help his mother in running a tea shop.
  • He has two elder brothers and two elder sisters.
  • From last six month he was suffering with eye infection, which required medical attention.
  • As a treatment many intramuscular injections was given to him but during the treatment, he developed an abscess at the injection site.
  • After some months, he noticed pimple on his nose which remained for several weeks and then developed into septicemia which spread to the rest of his face.
  • Along with this he also began to get skin lesions on his legs, along with getting ill with T. B.
  • After this mess they decide to visit the skin department of the Government General Hospital in Chennai for treatment with his family.
  • Where he was tested positive for HIV at the AIDS cell of the Madras Medical College.
  • It was looking like Rajamani was infected with HIV by contaminated needles or syringes.
  • He has being treated for the last two months for the Septicemia, skin lesion, and TB, but still not progressed to AIDS.
  • His body respond well to the treatment and will be discharged in short time.
  • Rajamani՚s case is very disappointing as point of infection through unsterilized needles and syringes which could have been easily avoided.

Section 23.2 Summary of Seen or Unseen Passage- ‘Solution for HIV/AIDS’

  • From the HIV/AIDS was discovered, medical community of whole world is trying their best to find alternative solutions for it.
  • In South Africa, A theatre troupe of Seshego township near Petersburg, uses theatre to educate the public about HIV/AIDS.
  • Phakama, which means ‘Rise, stand up,’ visit township to spread awareness in local population and encouraging participation.
  • Currently the most effective way to deal with AIDS is to educate people about how it spread and how can be careful to avoid it.
  • But along with this we also have to focus on other methods of prevention because creating a vaccine or even providing treatment is constantly changing so we have to wait for drugs because it may take many more years.
  • The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCOI) preferred different approach to fight against AIDS including education, not medicine to stop its spread.

UNESCO believes that to prevent from HIV/AIDS the disease on society could be reduced by battling complacency, advancing commitment and improving care. So, they have created a five-part strategy based on advocacy at all level and they are:

  • Customizing the message for various socio-economic groups
  • Changing risk behaviour and vulnerability
  • Caring for the infected and the affected
  • Coping with the institutional impact of AIDS on society

According to UNESCO, Education about AIDS is huge due to critical factor for a renewed and effective strategy, unfailing and unrelenting advocacy at all levels and political authorities supports it at the national level.

To address the audiences across the world, first of all they have to starts with those most at risk and reach to them in culturally appropriate ways, and educate them in the local way of life.

The reason behind uneven distribution of infection rates across the world is uneven distribution of knowledge.

Many different factors affect in comprehension and appreciation of AIDS education such as age, gender, education, economic conditions and religious beliefs. So, to deal with this problem the message must be different for different groups so that they can understand it better.

According to UNESCO, to reduce misconceptions and vulnerability of AIDS in people make them understand what AIDS does to the body.

But it is also important to avoid negative campaigns because it can be lead to stigmatization and discrimination.

Prevention from AIDS can be more effective if children and young people know how the virus spreads and how to avoid risk of AIDS.

School is the best institution to provide privation education as they have students of age group 10 to 25, because most of the new infections were detects from this age group.

AIDS has a greater effect on the population across the world so it becomes more important to take care about the infected and the affected both.

AIDS could challenge all health services, educational institutions and public services, making it more and more difficult to maintain government and stability because of the loss of human capital.

The most difficult challenge is to protect the core functions of the key social, economic and political institutions from HIV/AIDS as stated by UNESCO.

According to UNESCO we can not only relay on medical treatment, we also have to encourage spread of education to prevent AIDS, and for this UNSECO gave responsibility to Governments, the education systems and people themselves.

Commitment is the only way to save lives and decrease the impact of AIDS on society