NIOS (National Institute of Open Schooling) , Class 12 English: Chapter 5 Summary of – Fuel of the Future

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Summary of Section 5.1 - ‘Where is Clean Energy?’

  • How to get clean energy from nature is become important topic now a day՚s.
  • And in answer, we found that source of energies is the sun (solar) , wind, the tides (tidal) , water (hydro) and even biogas.
  • India is the only country that has Ministry for Renewable Energy Sources which was formed in 1992.
  • India also ranked the world՚s fifth largest producer of wind energy.
  • “Wind energy” is one of fastest-growing renewable energy technologies, where wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity.
  • Wind turbines are used to convert wind՚s kinetic energy into mechanical power, and that power can be used in grinding grain or pumping water.
  • A generator converts this mechanical power into electricity.
  • Wind power was also used to move ships, grind grain and pump water according to history.
  • And it՚s also proven that wind energy was used to propel boats along the Nile as early as 5,000 B. C

Summary of Section 5.2 - ‘Where and How Wind Energy Used in India?’

  • During the late 19th century when American West was developing in United States millions of windmills were erected and they were used to pump water for farms and ranches.
  • Many European countries till 1910 had started using of wind turbine generators to produce electricity.
  • Now a day՚s Netherlands windmills are used for pumping water, whereas in Denmark wind has become an effective source of energy.
  • Tamil Nadu is the first Indian state who gives a fillip to wind energy from last 10 years and still continues to be at first position, because almost half of India՚s nearly 2000 Mw of installed capacity from wind energy comes from Tamil Nadu.
  • In Tamil Nadu Wind turbines are located near Madurai and beyond.
  • The Centre for Wind Energy Technology is located in Chennai, where they check out various wind sites where wind energy can be tapped.
  • And they also keep their eyes on wind turbines of various sizes whether they are delivering what they promised to do.
  • Now Wind energy is abounded in many parts of India from Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala to the hilly regions in Maharashtra.

Summary of Section 5.3 - ‘Pores and Cons of Wind Energy’

  • After knowing about Wind Energy, a question will rise in our mind, Is the Wind Energy used popularly? Or advantage and disadvantage of it. Let us clarify this …
  • So, according to surveys taken in west, the public prefers wind and other renewable energy forms over conventional sources of generation.


  • Wind energy is free of cost and renewable resource, so it՚s not possible that wind energy can be finish that why it՚s not an issue how much is used today, there will still be the same supply in the future.
  • Wind energy is also a source of clean, non-polluting electricity so it՚s not harmful for environment.
  • Wind plants do not release any air pollutants or greenhouse gases just like conventional power plants.
  • During 1990 in California due to wind power plants, release of more than 2.5 billion pounds of carbon dioxide and 15 million pounds of other pollutants has been stopped. And the same air quality would only achieve by 90 million to 175 million trees forest.


  • Rotor blades produce some noise, visual impact, and the plight of birds that fly into the rotors (but luckily most of these problems do not exist in India as wind farms are located in remote areas and some of the problems are already been resolved through technological development) .
  • Wind is irregular so, there might be possibility that whenever we require electricity the wind would not always blow.

Currently worldwide, wind is the fastest growing source of electricity generation in the world so it might be a beneficial career for many.


Active Voice

  • A sentence said to be in Active voice when the subject performs the action given by the verb.
  • It defines “what person or thing does”
  • The subject performs the action and comes before action (verb)
  • The object receives the action and comes after action (verb)
  • Structure of active voice sentence:
    • Subject + verb (performed by the subject) + object


  • Monkeys love bananas
    • The monkey (subject) is doing love (verb)
  • Manali ate paratha in dinner

Passive Voice

  • A sentence said to be in Active voice when the subject is acted upon by some other performer of the verb.
  • It defines “what is done to someone or something” .
  • The subject performs the action and comes after the action (verb)
  • The object performs action and comes before the action (verb)
  • Structure of passive voice sentence:
    • Subject + verb + to be + past participle of a transitive verb + object


  • Bananas are loved by Monkey
    • The bananas (subject) are being loved (verb)
  • At dinner, paratha was eaten by Manali