Geography: Recommendations through Case Studies: Slum Area Development, Case Study – III

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Slum Area Development

Slum areas are the most deprived localities of human settlements. Based on the field survey and experiences of slum improvements in different cities the following planning is suggested.

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Provision for Basic Social Amenities

The provision of safe drinking water, sanitation, toilet, ventilation, school, dispensary, post office, road, means of transport and communication, shopping outlets, community centre etc. need to be provided to each locality irrespective of its status (rich or poor). It could be done for assuring human welfare. Services of ‘Sulabh International’ NGO’s have proved most economic and hygienic. This needs to be created for the community as a whole because people are poor and cannot afford many of these facilities at household level.

Provision for Economic Pursuits

Micro scale business and cottage industries could easily be planned to create self-employment and enhance income. Small business such as evening chaat bazar, weekly market, fruit and vegetable outlets could be planned for the local people. Besides business, cottage industries such as sculpturing, embroidery works, statue making, stone works, wood works, iron and repair works etc., if planned, can be meaningful in job and income generation to the slum areas.

Other Welfare Works

Since most of the people living in slums are deprived of assets, means of recreation and entertainment; community centres should be planned to provide means of entertainment and a place for social gatherings.

Environmental Quality Control

  • Slum areas reflect poor sanitation conditions. Slums develop near garbage disposal sites, refuge areas, and along drains. Plantations can promote shade, reduction in pollution level, and the creation of green environment along sites of waste disposal, roads, and drains. Most of the slum localities have problem of space, as such plantations of dwarf and flowering trees is most appropriate.

  • Planned efforts are also needed to cover the drains and sites of waste disposal. Planned efforts to slum improvement have made significant changes in the quality of life in Dharavi- A slum locality in Mumbai.

Case Study - III

Study of Tribal Village: Sembelpani (District Banaskantha-Gujarat)


  • The study area Sembelpani, a predominantly tribal village, is located approximately at 24°20’N latitude and 72° 44’E longitude in Danta tahsil of district Banaskantha of the state of Gujarat. The Palanpur - Ambaji road (Gujarat) passes nearby the village and connects Mt. Abu in Rajasthan. The village lies to the west of Ambaji town at a distance of about 7 kilometres.

  • The area is a part of the south eastern extension of Aravalli Hills adjoining district Sirohi in the State of Rajasthan. The village Sembelpani forms a part of Ambaji Mata Hill complex that represents sharp hill features, ranges, and hillocks. The general elevation of the study area is approximately 650 metres above the mean sea level. River Saraswati, a tributary of river Sabarmati flows through the area. This hilly tract records an average annual rainfall of 830 mm received largely from the south-west monsoon. The vegetation is typically dry deciduous type with trees like Teak, Mahua, Bamboo, Golar, Halad, Bija, Kandhi, and Sandi (local names). At places, vegetal cover is represented by scrub and open grasslands.

  • The Sembelpani has an area of 1542.48 hectares and a population of 642 persons. There are 106 households in the village (table-32.5). The proportion of tribal population to total population is 74.06 %. While Bharwad represents the tribal community, Rabari represent the non-tribal community in the village. The sex ratio (proportion of females per 1000 of male population) is 871. The proportion of literacy among females is 14.5 % while among males it is 26.4 %.

Profile of Households in Sembelpani Tribal Village – 2006

Sample Households

Profile of Households in Sembelpani Tribal Village – 2006
Title: Profile of Households in Sembelpani Tribal Village – 2006

Total No. of Households

Total Population

No. of Sample Households

Member of Households





Population Characteristics

Population Characteristics
Title: Population Characteristics

Area in Hectares


Percentage of Tribal Pop.

Density of Pop. Per Sq. Km.

Sex Ratio

Percentage of Literacy










Rabaris are semi-nomadic cattle rearing people. It is curious that they live in small conical huts called Khuba. Rabaris have become a group of pastoral or semi- pastoral people in permanent economic relationship with other constituents of the local caste system.

Land Utilisation

Of the total geographical area (1542.48 hectares) nearly 7.5 % is arable and 92.1 % is non- arable. The other uses of the land account for 0.4%. The village represents limited agriculture, widely spaced woodlands, and a large grazing ground. The land-based activities include animal herding and subsistence agriculture. Most of the houses are thatched, kuccha, widely spaced, elongated with partly fenced enclosures used for keeping animals, animal feeds like straw, grasses, and farming implements. The grazing grounds of the village are commonly shared by the tribal community. Transhumance is generally practised during drought periods. Pastoralists move with their animals along Aravalli highlands during summer and towards Kutch, Kathiawar area during winter season.

Patterns of Land Use (in hectares)

Patterns of Land Use (In Hectares)
Title: Patterns of Land Use (in hectares)

Total Geographical Area (in hect.)

Arable Land

Non-arable Land

Forest Cover

Other Uses








(92.1 %)



Economic Activities and Sources of Income

Of the total working population nearly 53 % are directly engaged in animal herding and associated activities, about 41 % in agro-pastoral activities, and remaining about 6 % in cottage industries, trade, transport, and services.

Participation in Economic Activities

Participation in Economic Activities
Title: Participation in Economic Activities





























On an average a household owns about 60 livestock. Cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, mules, camels etc. are the common animals reared in the area. Besides livestock, households are also engaged in the collection of forest products like honey, grass, guggal, dhaulimusli, and bor. Agriculture is practiced in a few pockets with relatively flat land and deep soil cover. Agriculture is largely rain-fed. The crops grown in the area are grains like millets, oil seeds, and pulses.

Income Through Different Sources

Average Income Per Household from Different sources (In Rs.)

Income through Different Sources
Title: Income Through Different Sources


Labour Products

Forest Products

Animal Industries














(l 00.00%)

  • Figures in brackets indicate percentage.

  • The sources of income are through the sale of animals and animal products like milk, ghee etc., forest products, agriculture and allied activities, cottage industries, and a variety of local services.

  • The average annual income of the household from all sources is Rs. 9361/-. The income generation through animal products and forest products is about 69 %, through agriculture about 25 %, through manual works as labour about 6 (5.54) % and remaining through handicrafts and other works.

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