NIOS History Module 1 Ch 4 The Vedic Age

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The Vedic Age (1500BC–600BC)

Vedic teaching

Vedic Teaching

Vedic teaching


Original home of Aryans still is a controversial point.

According to popular belief, Aryans are supposed to have migrates from central Asia – and salted in the present frontier province and the Punjab – then called “Sapt Sindhu” that is region of seven rivers.

Important Vedic Productions Are:

  1. The Vedas

  2. The Brahamans

  3. The Aranyakas

  4. The Upanishadas

There Are Four Types of Vedas

Rig Veda: (Collection of Lyrics)

Also known as “1st testament of mankind”

It contains ao28 Hymns and 10,580 yeses divided into 10 Manadals.

The 1st and 10th mandalas are said to be added later.

The 10th mandala contains “Purushasukta” Which Explains 4 varnas namely

  1. Brahmana

  2. Kshatriya

  3. Vaishya

  4. Sudra

The hymns of rig Veda were recited by “Udgatri”.

Sama Veda: - (Books of Chats)

This Veda is important for Indian music and had 1549 Verses.

Except 75 Verses, all other are taken from Rig-Veda.

The hymns of Samveda were recited by “Udgatri”




Yajur Veda: - (Books of Sacrificial Prayers)

Rigveda and Samaveda are in “Verse” only Whereas Yajur Veda is in both verse and “prose”

It is divided into 2 parts

  1. Krishna Yajur Veda

  2. Shukla Yajur Veda

The hymns of Yajur Veda were recited by “Adhveryus”.

Atharva Veda: - (Book of Magical Formulae)

It was included in the category of Vedas at a later stage.

It contains charms and spells to prevent us from evils and diseases.

The Brahamans: -

It explains the hymns of the Vedas.

It is written in prose and is ritualistic in nature.

Brahma means “Sacrifice”.

Various rituals and sacrifices have been discussed in brahamanas.

The Aranyakas: -

Aranya means “The Forest”.

The “Forest test” were called Aranyakas.

They are the concluding portions of brahamanas.

It is written mainly for the hermits and the students living in jungle.

The Upanishadas:-

There are 108 Upanishadas and “Vrihadaranyaka” is the oldest Upanishadas.

They are philosophical texts generally called “Vedanta” because they came towards the end of Veda.

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