Home Family and Home Science – Need & principles of Food preservation, Household Methods of Food Preservation

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Food preservation is to treat food to keep it in good condition for a long time. It is a form of processing of food to prevent it from spoilage and making it possible to store in a fir condition for future use. It may be simple as boiling of milk or complicated like picking of mango or lemon. By preserving foods, we are also increasing their shelf life.

Need for Preservation

  • To increase the shelf life of foods.

  • To prepare new products like jams, papads, pickles etc., Such products are enjoyed by everyone and all the year round.

  • Processing reduces the bulk of fruits and vegetables. The storage and transportation become easier.

  • Helps in utilizing the food stuffs when available in excess.

Principles of Food Preservation

  • By killing the micro-organisms

  • By preventing or delaying the action of micro-organisms.

  • By stopping the action of enzymes.

Household Methods of Food Preservation

Image of Household methods

Image of Household Methods

Image of Household methods


  • Preservation of foods by drying is an age-old method. Drying is observed in cereal grains, legumes and nuts. All these dry on the plant itself.

  • Dehydration usually implies the use of controlled conditions of heating with the forced circulation of air.

Pickling with Salts, Spices and Oil

  • You must have observed that the pickle is usually covered with a layer of oil. This is because, the layer of oil prevents the foodstuff from coming in contact with the air, thus preventing the entry of micro-organisms, which can spoil the pickle.

  • The process of preparing a pickle is simple.

Image of process of preparing pickel

Image of Process of Preparing Pickel

Image of process of preparing pickel

Making Jam, Jellies and Murabbas

  • You can make jam by boiling the fleshy part of the fruit with sufficient quantity of sugar to a thick mixture. You can make jams with apple, mango, papaya, pineapple, raw mango etc.,

  • Murabbas are made by boiling the fruit in sugar solution. Till they become soft. Murabbas are popular for eating with chapatis, puris etc.,

Bottling of Squashes

  • A glass of cold lemon squash is always welcome in summers. Lemon squash or any other squash can be easily prepared at home.

  • You can prepare squashes with lemon, orange, mango, grapes, pineapples, etc.,


  • Freezing fruits and vegetables in season can be of great benefit as they can be available when they are not in season.

  • For example, freezing of peas in winter they are cheap and of good quality, can be of great use in summer when they are very expensive.

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